Disk Scheduling in Multimedia Systems




Disk Scheduling

 We first discussed disk scheduling in Chapter 12. There, we focused primarily on systems that handle conventional data; for these systems, the scheduling goals are fairness and throughput. As a result, most traditional disk schedulers employ some form of the SCAN (Section 12.4.3) or C-SCAN (Section 12.4.4) algorithm. Continuous-media files, however, have two constraints that conventional data files generally do not have: timing deadlines and rate requirements.

These two constraints must be satisfied to preserve QoS guarantees, and diskscheduling algorithms must be optimized for the constraints. Unfortunately, these two constraints are often in conflict. Continuous-media files typically require very high disk-bandwidth rates to satisfy their data-rate requirements. Because disks have relatively low transfer rates and relatively high latency rates, disk schedulers must reduce the latency times to ensure high bandwidth.

However, reducing latency times may result in a scheduling policy that does not prioritize according to deadlines. In this section, we explore two diskscheduling algorithms that meet the QoS requirements for continuous-media systems.

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Earliest-Deadline-First Scheduling

 We first saw the earliest-deadline-first (EDF) algorithm in Section 19.5.2 as an example of a CPU-scheduling algorithm that assigns priorities according to deadlines. EDF can also be used as a disk-scheduling algorithm; in this context, EDF uses a queue to order requests according to the time each request must be completed (its deadline). EDF is similar to shortest-seek-time-first (SSTF), which was discussed in 12.4.2, except that instead of servicing the request closest to the current cylinder, we service requests according to deadline—the request with the closest deadline is serviced first.

Disk Scheduling in Multimedia Systems

 A problem with this approach is that servicing requests strictly according to deadline may result in higher seek times, since the disk heads may move randomly throughout the disk without any regard to their current position. For example, suppose a disk head is currently at cylinder 75 and the queue of cylinders (ordered according to deadlines) is 98, 183, 105. Under strict EDF scheduling, the disk head will move from 75, to 98, to 183, and then back to 105. Note that the head passes over cylinder 105 as it travels from 98 to 183. It is possible that the disk scheduler could have serviced the request for cylinder 105 en route to cylinder 183 and still preserved the deadline requirement for cylinder 183. 724 Chapter 20 Multimedia Systems

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SCAN-EDF Scheduling

 The fundamental problem with strict EDF scheduling is that it ignores the position of the read-write heads of the disk; it is possible that the movement of the heads will swing wildly to and fro across the disk, leading to unacceptable seek times that negatively affect disk throughput. Recall that this is the same issue faced with FCFS scheduling (Section 12.4.1). We ultimately addressed this issue by adopting SCAN scheduling, wherein the disk arm moves in one direction across the disk, servicing requests according to their proximity to the current cylinder.

 Once the disk arm reaches the end of the disk, it begins moving in the reverse direction. This strategy optimizes seek times. SCAN-EDF is a hybrid algorithm that combines EDF with SCAN scheduling. SCAN-EDF starts with EDF ordering but services requests with the same deadline using SCAN order. What if several requests have different deadlines that are relatively close together? In this case, SCAN-EDF may batch requests, using SCAN ordering to service requests in the same batch.

There are many techniques for batching requests with similar deadlines; the only requirement is that reordering requests within a batch must not prevent a request from being serviced by its deadline. If deadlines are equally distributed, batches can be organized in groups of a certain size—say, 10 requests per batch. Another approach is to batch requests whose deadlines fall within a given time threshold—say, 100 milliseconds. Let's consider an example in which we batch requests in this way. Assume we have the following requests, each with a specified deadline (in milliseconds) and the cylinder being requested:

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Disk Scheduling in Multimedia Systems

Suppose we are at ti meo, the cylinder currently being serviced is 50, and the disk head is moving toward cylinder 51. According to our batching scheme, requests D and F will be in the first batch; A, G, and H in batch 2; B, E, and J in batch 3; and C and I in the last batch. Requests within each batch will be ordered according to SCAN order. Thus, in batch 1, we will first service request F and then request D. Note that we are moving downward in cylinder numbers, from 85 to 31. In batch 2, we first service request A; then the heads begin moving upward in cylinders, servicing requests H and then G. Batch 3 is serviced in the order E, B, J. Requests I and C are serviced in the final batch.



Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: CPU Scheduling We distinguished between soft real-time systems and hard real-time systems. Soft real-time systems simply give scheduling priority to critical processes. A soft real-time system ensures that a critical process will be given preference over a noncritical process but provides no guarantee as to when the critical process will be scheduled. A typical requirement of continuous media, however, is that data must be delivered to a client by a certain deadline; data that do not arrive by the deadline are unusable. Multimedia systems thus require hard real-time scheduling to ensure that a critical task will be serviced within a guaranteed period of time. Another scheduling issue concerns whether a scheduling algorithm uses static priority or dynamic priority—a distinction view more..
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Ans: What Is Multimedia? The term multimedia describes a wide range of applications that are in popular use today. These include audio and video files such as MP3 audio files, DVD movies, and short video clips of movie previews or news stories downloaded over the Internet. Multimedia applications also include live webcasts (broadcast over the World Wide Web) of speeches or sporting events and even live webcams that allow a viewer in Manhattan to observe customers at a cafe in Paris. Multimedia applications need not be either audio or video; rather, a multimedia application often includes a combination of both. For example, a movie may consist of separate audio and video tracks. Nor must multimedia applications be delivered only to desktop personal computers. Increasingly, they are being directed toward smaller devices, including personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cellular telephones. view more..
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Ans: Requirements of Multimedia Kernels As a result of the characteristics described in Section 20.1.2, multimedia applications often require levels of service from the operating system that differ from the requirements of traditional applications, such as word processors, compilers, and spreadsheets. Timing and rate requirements are perhaps the issues of foremost concern, as the playback of audio and video data demands that the data be delivered within a certain deadline and at a continuous, fixed rate. Traditional applications typically do not have such time and rate constraints. view more..
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Ans: Disk Scheduling we focused primarily on systems that handle conventional data; for these systems, the scheduling goals are fairness and throughput. As a result, most traditional disk schedulers employ some form of the SCAN (Section 12.4.3) or C-SCAN (Section 12.4.4) algorithm. Continuous-media files, however, have two constraints that conventional data files generally do not have: timing deadlines and rate requirements. These two constraints must be satisfied to preserve QoS guarantees, and diskscheduling algorithms must be optimized for the constraints. Unfortunately, these two constraints are often in conflict. Continuous-media files typically require very high disk-bandwidth rates to satisfy their data-rate requirements. Because disks have relatively low transfer rates and relatively high latency rates, disk schedulers must reduce the latency times to ensure high bandwidth. view more..
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Ans: Network Management Perhaps the foremost QoS issue with multimedia systems concerns preserving rate requirements. For example, if a client wishes to view a video compressed with MPEG-1, the quality of service greatly depends on the system's ability to deliver the frames at the required rate.. Our coverage of issues such as CPU- and disk-scheduling algorithms has focused on how these techniques can be used to better meet the quality-ofservice requirements of multimedia applications. However, if the media file is being streamed over a network—perhaps the Internet—issues relating to how the network delivers the multimedia data can also significantly affect how QoS demands are met. In this section, we explore several network issues related to the unique demands of continuous media. Before we proceed, it is worth noting that computer networks in general —and the Internet in particular— currently do not provide network protocols that can ensure the delivery of data with timing requirements. (There are some proprietary protocols—notably those running on Cisco routers—that do allow certain network traffic to be prioritized to meet QoS requirements. view more..
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Ans: CTSS The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) (Corbato et al. [1962]) was designed at MIT as an experimental time-sharing system. It was implemented on an IBM 7090 and eventually supported up to 32 interactive users. The users were provided with a set of interactive commands that allowed them to manipulate files and to compile and run programs through a terminal. view more..
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Ans: MULTICS The MULTICS operating system (Corbato and Vyssotsky [1965], Organick [1972]) was designed at MIT as a natural extension of CTSS. CTSS and other early time-sharing systems were so successful that they created an immediate desire to proceed quickly to bigger and better systems. As larger computers became available, the designers of CTSS set out to create a time-sharing utility. Computing service would be provided like electrical power. Large computer systems would be connected by telephone wires to terminals in offices and homes throughout a city. The operating system would be a time-shared system running continuously with a vast file system of shared programs and data. view more..
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Ans: IBM OS/360 The longest line of operating-system development is undoubtedly that of IBM computers. The early IBM computers, such as the IBM 7090 and the IBM 7094, are prime examples of the development of common I/O subroutines, followed by development of a resident monitor, privileged instructions, memory protection, and simple batch processing. These systems were developed separately, often by each site independently. As a result, IBM was faced with many different computers, with different languages and different system software. view more..
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Ans: Mach The Mach operating system traces its ancestry to the Accent operating system developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) (Rashid and Robertson [1981]). Mach's communication system and philosophy are derived from Accent, but many other significant portions of the system (for example, the virtual memory system, task and thread management) were developed from scratch (Rashid [1986], Tevanian et al. [1989], and Accetta et al. [1986]). The Mach scheduler was described in detail by Tevanian et al. [1987a] and Black [1990]. view more..
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Ans: History In the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM cooperated to develop the OS/2 operating system, which was written in assembly language for single-processor Intel 80286 systems. In 1988, Microsoft decided to make a fresh start and to develop a "new technology" (or NT) portable operating system that supported both the OS/2 and POSIX application-programming interfaces (APIs). view more..
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Ans: Access Matrix Our model of protection can be viewed abstractly as a matrix, called an access matrix. The rows of the access matrix represent domains, and the columns represent objects. Each entry in the matrix consists of a set of access rights. Because the column defines objects explicitly, we can omit the object name from the access right. The entry access(/,/) defines the set of operations that a process executing in domain Dj can invoke on object . view more..
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Ans: Election Algorithms Many distributed algorithms employ a coordinator process that performs functions needed by the other processes in the system. These functions include enforcing mutual exclusion, maintaining a global wait-for graph for deadlock detection, replacing a lost token, and controlling an input or output device in the system. If the coordinator process fails due to the failure of the site at which it resides, the system can continue only by restarting a new copy of the coordinator on some other site. The algorithms that determine where a new copy of the coordinator should be restarted are called election algorithms. Election algorithms assume that a unique priority number is associated with each active process in the system. For ease of notation, we assume that the priority number of process P, is /. To simplify our discussion, we assume a one-to-one correspondence between processes and sites and thus refer to both as processes. view more..
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Ans: Reaching Agreement For a system to be reliable, we need a mechanism that allows a set of processes to agree on a common value. Such an agreement may not take place, for several reasons. First, the communication medium may be faulty, resulting in lost or garbled messages. Second, the processes themselves may be faulty, resulting in unpredictable process behavior. The best we can hope for in this case is that processes fail in a clean way, stopping their execution without deviating from their normal execution pattern. In the worst case, processes may send garbled or incorrect messages to other processes or even collaborate with other failed processes in an attempt to destroy the integrity of the system. view more..
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Ans: Atomicity We introduced the concept of an atomic transaction, which is a program unit that must be executed atomically. That is, either all the operations associated with it are executed to completion, or none are performed. When we are dealing with a distributed system, ensuring the atomicity of a transaction becomes much more complicated than in a centralized system. This difficulty occurs because several sites may be participating in the execution of a single transaction. The failure of one of these sites, or the failure of a communication link connecting the sites, may result in erroneous computations. Ensuring that the execution of transactions in the distributed system preserves atomicity is the function of the transaction coordinator. Each site has its own local transaction coordinator, which is responsible for coordinating the execution of all the transactions initiated at that site. view more..
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Ans: Concurrency Control We move next to the issue of concurrency control. In this section, we show how certain of the concurrency-control schemes discussed in Chapter 6 can be modified for use in a distributed environment. The transaction manager of a distributed database system manages the execution of those transactions (or subtransactions) that access data stored in a local site. Each such transaction may be either a local transaction (that is, a transaction that executes only at that site) or part of a global transaction (that is, a transaction that executes at several sites). Each transaction manager is responsible for maintaining a log for recovery purposes and for participating in an appropriate concurrency-control scheme to coordinate the conciirrent execution of the transactions executing at that site. As we shall see, the concurrency schemes described in Chapter 6 need to be modified to accommodate the distribution of transactions. view more..
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Ans: Features of Real-Time Kernels In this section, we discuss the features necessary for designing an operating system that supports real-time processes. Before we begin, though, let's consider what is typically not needed for a real-time system. We begin by examining several features provided in many of the operating systems discussed so far in this text, including Linux, UNIX, and the various versions of Windows. These systems typically provide support for the following: • A variety of peripheral devices such as graphical displays, CD, and DVD drives • Protection and security mechanisms • Multiple users Supporting these features often results in a sophisticated—and large—kernel. For example, Windows XP has over forty million lines of source code. view more..
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Ans: Implementing Real-Time Operating Systems Keeping in mind the many possible variations, we now identify the features necessary for implementing a real-time operating system. This list is by no means absolute; some systems provide more features than we list below, while other systems provide fewer. • Preemptive, priority-based scheduling • Preemptive kernel • Minimized latency view more..
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Ans: VxWorks 5.x In this section, we describe VxWorks, a popular real-time operating system providing hard real-time support. VxWorks, commercially developed by Wind River Systems, is widely used in automobiles, consumer and industrial devices, and networking equipment such as switches and routers. VxWorks is also used to control the two rovers—Spirit and Opportunity—that began exploring the planet Mars in 2004. The organization of VxWorks is shown in Figure 19.12. VxWorks is centered around the Wind microkernel. Recall from our discussion in Section 2.7.3 that microkernels are designed so that the operating-system kernel provides a bare minimum of features; additional utilities, such as networking, file systems, and graphics, are provided in libraries outside of the kernel. This approach offers many benefits, including minimizing the size of the kernel—a desirable feature for an embedded system requiring a small footprint view more..




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