Types of System Calls

Types of System Calls

System calls can be grouped roughly into five major categories: process control, file manipulation, device manipulation, information maintenance, and communications. In Sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.5, we discuss briefly the types of system calls that may be provided by an operating system. Most of these system calls support, or are supported by, concepts and functions that are discussed in later chapters. Figure 2.5 summarizes the types of system calls normally provided by an operating system

Process Control

A running program needs to be able to halt its execution either normally (end) or abnormally (abort). If a system call is made to terminate the currently running program abnormally, or if the program runs into a problem and causes an error trap, a dump of memory is sometimes taken and an error message generated.

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The dump is written to disk and may be examined by a debugger—a system program designed to aid the programmer in finding and correcting bugs-—to determine the cause of the problem. Under either normal or abnormal circumstances, the operating system must transfer control to the 48 Chapter 2 Operating-System Structures

• Process control o end, abort o load, execute o create process, terminate process o get process attributes, set process attributes o wait for time o wait event, signal event o allocate and free memory

• File management ° create file, delete file o open, close ° read, write, reposition o get file attributes, set file attributes

 • Device management o request device, release device ° read, write, reposition o get device attributes, set device attributes ° logically attach or detach devices

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• Information maintenance o get time or date, set time or date o get system data, set system data o get process, file, or device attributes o set process, file, or device attributes

• Communications 0 create, delete communication connection ° send, receive messages o transfer status information o attach or detach remote devices Figure 2.5 Types of system calls. invoking command interpreter. The command interpreter then reads the next command. In an interactive system, the command interpreter simply continues with the next command; it is assumed that the user will issue an appropriate command to respond to any error. In a GUI system, a pop-up window might alert the user to the error and ask for guidance. In a batch system, the command interpreter usually terminates the entire job and continues with the next job.

 Types of System Calls

Some systems allow control cards to indicate special recovery actions in case an error occurs. A control card is a batch system concept. It is a command to manage the execution of a process. If the program discovers an error in its input and wants to terminate abnormally, it may also want to define an error level. More severe errors can be indicated by a higher-level error parameter. It is then possible to combine normal and abnormal termination by defining a normal termination as an error at level 0. The command interpreter or a following program can use this error level to determine the next action automatically. A process or job executing one program may want to load and execute another program. This feature allows the command interpreter to execute a program as directed by, for example, a user command, the click of a mouse, or a batch command.

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An interesting question is where to return control when the loaded program terminates. This question is related to the problem of whether the existing program is lost, saved, or allowed to continue execution concurrently with the new program If control returns to the existing program when the new program terminates, we must save the memory image of the existing program; thus, we have effectively created a mechanism for one program to call another program. If both programs continue concurrently, we have created a new job or process to be multiprogrammed. Often, there is a system call specifically for this purpose (create process or submit job). If we create a new job or process, or perhaps even a set of jobs or processes, we should be able to control its execution. This control requires the ability to determine and reset the attributes of a job or process, including the job's priority, its maximum allowable execution time, and so on (get process attributes and set process attributes).

We may also want to terminate a job or process that we created (terminate process) if we find that it is incorrect or is no longer needed. Having created new jobs or processes, we may need to wait for them to finish their execution. We may want to wait for a certain amount of time to pass (wait time); more probably, we will want to wait for a specific event to occur (wait event). The jobs or processes should then signal when that event has occurred (signal event). System calls of this type, dealing with the coordination of concurrent processes, are discussed in great detail in Chapter 6.

Another set of system calls is helpful in debugging a program. Many systems provide system calls to dump memory. This provision is useful for debugging. A program trace lists each instruction as it is executed; it is provided by fewer systems. Even microprocessors provide a CPU mode known as single step, in which a trap is executed by the CPU after every instruction. The trap is usually caught by a debugger. Many operating systems provide a time profile of a program to indicate the amount of time that the program executes at a particular location or set of locations.

A time profile requires either a tracing facility or regular timer interrupts. At every occurrence of the timer interrupt, the value of the program counter is recorded. With sufficiently frequent timer interrupts, a statistical picture of the time spent on various parts of the program can be obtained. There are so many facets of and variations in process and job control that we next use two examples—one involving a single-tasking system and the other a multitasking system—to clarify these concepts.

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The MS-DOS operating system is an example of a single-tasking system. It has a command interpreter that is invoked when the computer is started (Figure 2.7(a)). Because MS-DOS is single-tasking, it uses a simple method to run a program and does not create a new process. It loads the program into memory, writing over most of itself to give the program as much memory as possible (Figure 2.7(b)). Next, it sets the instruction pointer to the first instruction of the program. The program then runs, and either an error causes a trap, or the program executes a system call to terminate. In either case, the error code is saved in the system memory for later use.

 Types of System Calls

Following this action, the small portion of the command interpreter that was not overwritten resumes execution. Its first task is to reload the rest of the command interpreter from disk. Then the command interpreter makes the previous error code available to the user or to the next program. FreeBSD (derived from Berkeley UNIX) is an example of a multitasking system. When a user logs on to the system, the shell of the user's choice is run. This shell is similar to the MS-DOS shell in that it accepts commands and executes programs that the user requests. However, since FreeBSD is a multitasking system, the command interpreter may continue running while another program is executed (Figure 2.8). To start a new process, the shell executes a fork() system call.

 Types of System Calls

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 Types of System Calls

Then, the selected program is loaded into memory via an exec() system call, and the program is executed. Depending on the way the command was issued, the shell then either waits for the process to finish or runs the process "in the background." In the latter case, the shell immediately reqviests another command. When a process is running in the background, it cannot receive input directly from the keyboard, because the shell is using this resource. I/O is therefore done through files or through a GUI interface. Meanwhile, the user is free to ask the shell to run other programs, to monitor the progress of the running process, to change that program's priority, and so on.

When the process is done, it executes an exit() system call to terminate, returning to the invoking process a status code of 0 or a nonzero error code. This status or error code is then available to the shell or other programs. Processes are discussed in Chapter 3 with an program example using the fork () andexecO system calls.

File Management

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 The file system will be discussed in more detail in Chapters 10 and 11. We can, however, identify several common system calls dealing with files, We first need to be able to create and delete files. Either system call requires the name of the file and perhaps some of the file's attributes. Once the file is created, we need to open it and to use it. We may also read, write, or reposition (rewinding or skipping to the end of the file, for example).

 Finally, we need to close the file, indicating that we are no longer using it. We may need these same sets of operations for directories if we have a directory structure for organizing files in the file system. In addition, for either files or directories, we need to be able to determine the values of various attributes and perhaps to reset them if necessary. File attributes include the file name, a file type, protection codes, accounting information, and so on.

At least two system calls, get file attribute and set fil e attribute, are required for this function. Some operating systems provide many more calls, such as calls for file move and copy. Others might provide an API that performs those operations using code and other system calls, and others might just provide system programs to perform those tasks. If the system programs are callable by other programs, then each can be considered an API by other system programs.

Device Management

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 A process may need several resources to execute—main memory, disk drives, access to files, and so on. If the resources are available, they can be granted, and control can be returned to the user process. Otherwise, the process will have to wait until sufficient resources are available. The various resources controlled by the operating sysstem can be thought of as devices. Some of these devices are physical devices (for example, tapes), while others can be thought of as abstract or virtual devices (for example, files). If there are multiple users of the system, the system may require us to first request the device, to ensure exclusive use of it. After we are finished with the device, we release it. These functions are similar to the open and close system calls for files.

 Other operating systems allow unmanaged access to devices. The hazard then is the potential for device contention and perhaps deadlock, which is described in Chapter 7. Once the device has been requested (and allocated to us), we can read, write, and (possibly) reposition the device, just as we can with files. In fact, the similarity between I/O devices and files is so great that many operating systems, including UNIX, merge the two into a combined file-device structure. In this case, a set of system calls is used on files and devices. Sometimes, I/O devices are identified by special file names, directory placement, or file attributes. The UI can also make files and devices appear to be similar, even though the underlying system calls are dissimilar. This is another example of the many design decisions that go into building an operating system and user interface.

Information Maintenance

Many system calls exist simply for the purpose of transferring information between the user program and the operating system. For example, most 54 Chapter 2 Operating-System Structures systems have a system call to return the current time and date . Other system calls may return information about the system, such as the number of current users, the version number of the operating system, the amount of free memory or disk space, and so on. In addition, the operating system keeps information about all its processes, and svstem calls are used to access this information. Generally, calls are also used to reset the process information (get process attribute s and s e t process attributes) . In Section 3.1.3, we discuss what information is normally kept

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There are two common models of interprocess communication: the messagepassing model and the shared-memory model. In the message-passing model, the communicating processes exchange messages with one another to transfer information. Messages can be exchanged between the processes either directly or indirectly through a common mailbox. Before communication can take place, a connection must be opened. The name of the other communicator must be known, be it another process on the same system or a process on another computer connected by a communications network. Each computer in a network has a host name by which it is commonly known.

A host also has a network identifier, such as an IP address. Similarly, each process has a process name, and this name is translated into an identifier by which the operating system can refer to the process. The get host id and get processid system calls do this translation. The identifiers are then passed to the generalpurpose open and close calls provided by the file system or to specific open connection and close connection system calls, depending on the system's model of communication.

 The recipient process usually must give its permission for communication to take place with an accept connection call. Most processes that will be receiving connections are special-purpose daemons, which are systems programs provided for that purpose. They execute a wait for c onnect ion call and are awakened when a connection is made. The source of the communication, known as the client, and the receiving daemon, known as a server, then exchange messages by using read message and write message system calls. The close connection call terminates the communication. In the shared-memory model, processes use shared memory create and shared memory attach system calls to create and gain access to regions of memory owned by other processes. Recall that, normally, the operating system tries to prevent one process from accessing another process's memory.

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Shared memory requires that two or more processes agree to remove this restriction. They can then exchange information by reading and writing data in the shared areas. The form of the data and the location are determined by the processes and are not under the operating system's control. The processes are also responsible for ensuring that they are not writing to the same location simultaneously. Such mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 4, we look at a variation of the process scheme—threads—in which memory is shared by default.

Both of the models just discussed are common in operating systems, and most systems implement both. Message passing is useful for exchanging smaller amounts of data, because no conflicts need be avoided. It is also easier to implement than is shared memory for intercomputer communication. Shared 2.5 System Programs 55 memory allows maximum speed and convenience of communication, since it can be done at memory speeds when it takes place within a computer. Problems exist, however, in the areas of protection and synchronization between the processes sharing memory

Frequently Asked Questions

Ans: Event Ordering In a centralized system, we can always determine the order in which two events occurred, since the system has a single common memory and clock. Many applications may require us to determine order. For example, in a resourceallocation scheme, we specify that a resource can be used only after the resource has been granted. A distributed system, however, has no common memory and no common clock. Therefore, it is sometimes impossible to say which of two events occurred first. The liappened-before relation is only a partial ordering of the events in distributed systems. Since the ability to define a total ordering is crucial in many applications, we present a distributed algorithm for exterding the happened-before relation to a consistent total ordering of all the events in the system. view more..
Ans: Mutual Exclusion In this section, we present a number of different algorithms for implementing mutual exclusion in a distributed environment. We assume that the system consists of n processes, each of which resides at a different processor. To simplify our discussion, we assume that processes are numbered uniquely from 1 to n and that a one-to-one mapping exists between processes and processors (that is, each process has its own processor). view more..
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Ans: Types of System Calls System calls can be grouped roughly into five major categories: process control, file manipulation, device manipulation, information maintenance, and communications. In Sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.5, we discuss briefly the types of system calls that may be provided by an operating system. view more..
Ans: Overview of Mass-Storage Structure In this section we present a general overview of the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices. view more..
Ans: Atomic Transactions The mutual exclusion of critical sections ensures that the critical sections are executed atomically. That is, if two critical sections are executed concurrently, the result is equivalent to their sequential execution in some unknown order. Although this property is useful in many application domains, in many cases we would like to make sure that a critical section forms a single logical unit of work that either is performed in its entirety or is not performed at all. An example is funds transfer, in which one account is debited and another is credited. Clearly, it is essential for data consistency either that both the credit and debit occur or that neither occur. Consistency of data, along with storage and retrieval of data, is a concern often associated with database systems. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in using database-systems techniques in operating systems. view more..
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Ans: Memory Management The main memory is central to the operation of a modern computer system. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes, ranging in size from hundreds of thousands to billions. Each word or byte has its own address. Main memory is a repository of quickly accessible data shared by the CPU and I/O devices. The central processor reads instructions from main memory during the instruction-fetch cycle and both reads and writes data from main memory during the data-fetch cycle (on a Von Neumann architecture). The main memory is generally the only large storage device that the CPU is able to address and access directly. view more..
Ans: Storage Management To make the computer system convenient for users, the operating system provides a uniform, logical view of information storage. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit, the file. The operating system maps files onto physical media and accesses these files via the storage devices view more..
Ans: Protection and Security If a computer system has multiple users and allows the concurrent execution of multiple processes, then access to data must be regulated. For that purpose, mechanisms ensure that files, memory segments, CPU, and other resources can be operated on by only those processes that have gained proper authorization from the operating system. For example, memory-addressing hardware ensures that a process can execute only within its own address space. view more..
Ans: Distributed Systems A distributed system is a collection of physically separate, possibly heterogeneous computer systems that are networked to provide the users with access to the various resources that the system maintains. Access to a shared resource increases computation speed, functionality, data availability, and reliability. Some operating systems generalize network access as a form of file access, with the details of networking contained in the network interface's device driver. view more..
Ans: Special-Purpose Systems The discussion thus far has focused on general-purpose computer systems that we are all familiar with. There are, however, different classes of computer systems whose functions are more limited and whose objective is to deal with limited computation domains. view more..
Ans: Operating systems provide a number of services. At the lowest level, system calls allow a running program to make requests from the operating system directly. At a higher level, the command interpreter or shell provides a mechanism for a user to issue a request without writing a program. Commands may come from files during batch-mode execution or directly from a terminal when in an interactive or time-shared mode. System programs are provided to satisfy many common user requests. The types of requests vary according to level. view more..
Ans: Summary A thread is a flow of control within a process. A multithreaded process contains several different flows of control within the same address space. The benefits of multithreading include increased responsiveness to the user, resource sharing within the process, economy, and the ability to take advantage of multiprocessor architectures. User-level threads are threads that are visible to the programmer and are unknown to the kernel. view more..
Ans: Motivation A distributed system is a collection of loosely coupled processors interconnected by a communication network. From the point of view of a specific processor in a distributed system, the rest of the processors and their respective resources are remote, whereas its own resources are local. The processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. They may include small microprocessors, workstations, minicomputers, and large general-purpose computer systems. view more..
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Ans: Summary It is desirable to be able to execute a process whose logical address space is larger than the available physical address space. Virtual memory is a technique that enables us to map a large logical address space onto a smaller physical memory. Virtual memory allowr s us to run extremely large processes and to raise the degree of multiprogramming, increasing CPU utilization. Further, it frees application programmers from worrying about memory availability. In addition, with virtual memory, several processes can share system libraries and memory. view more..

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