Scope and classification of metrics




The scope of matrics :

Quantitative measure of degree to which a system, component or process possesses a given attribute
For ex. No. of errors found per person hours expended

  1. Cost and Effort Estimation : Boehm’s COCOMO model, Putnam’s SLIM Model & Albrecht’s function model.  
  2. Productivity model and measures : for accessing staff productivity  
    Scope and classification of metrics
  3. Data Collection: Quality of any measurement product is clearly depend on careful data collection. It is easier to say but difficult to done specially in case of large projects
  4. Quality models and Measures: Without quality, speed of production is meaningless. Eg. Boehm’s advanced COCOMO model.
    Scope and classification of metrics
  5. Reliability Models: Most quality models include reliability as a component factor, but the need to predict & measure reliability itself has led to a separate specialization in reliability modeling and predictions.
  6. Performance evaluation and models -Aspects of quality -Response time and completion rates -Performance specialists also investigate the internal workings of system including efficiency of algorithms.
  7. Structural and Complexity Metrics: Reliability & maintainability cannot be measured until some operational version of the code is available. We wish to predict which parts of the s/w system are likely to be less reliable, more difficult to test or required more maintenance than other even before the system is complete. We measure structural attributes of representation of s/w which are available without need for execution.
  8. Management by Metrics: Charts and graphs help the mgmt. to track the status project. Many organizations define a set of measurements & reporting methods to track the status of project.
  9. Evaluation of methods and tools: It is difficult to separate the claims from the reality. Organization performs experiments, case studies & administrator surveys to check whether a method or tool is likely to make a positive difference in their particular situations. These investigations cannot be done without careful, controlled measurement and analysis.
  10. Capability Maturity Assessment: In the 1980s, the US Soft Engg Inst (SEI) proposed a capability maturity model to develop the quality software for US government. Assessed many different attributes The resulting grade was reported as a scale, from “1” (adhoc) to “5” (development – continuous feedback) 

Metric Classification

  • Process Metrics
  • Product Metrics
  • Project Metrics
  1. Process Metrics
  • Process metrics are measures of the software development process, such as
  • Overall development time
  • Type of methodology used
  • Process metrics are collected across all projects and over long periods of time.
  • Their intent is to provide indicators that lead to long-term software process improvement.
  • To improve any process, the rational way is:
  • Measure Specific attributes of the process
  • Derive meaningful metrics from these attributes.
  • Use these metrics to provide indicators.
  • The indicators lead to a strategy for improvement.

Factors Affecting Software Quality

Scope and classification of metrics

How to Measure Effectiveness of a Software Process

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  • We measure the effectiveness of a software process indirectly
  • We derive a set of metrics based on the outcomes that can be derived from the process.
  • Outcomes include
  • Errors uncovered before release of the software
  • Defects delivered to and reported by end-users
  • Work products delivered (productivity)
  • Human effort expended
  • Calendar time expended etc.
  • Conformance to schedule
  1. Project Metrics
  • Project Metrics are the measures of Software Project and are used to monitor and control the project. They enable a software project manager to:
  • Minimize the development time by making the adjustments necessary to avoid delays and potential problems and risks.
  • Assess product quality on an ongoing basis & modify the technical approach to improve quality.
  • Used in estimation techniques & other technical work.
  • Metrics collected from past projects are used as a basis from which effort and time estimates are made for current software project.
  • As a project proceeds, actual values of human effort & calendar time expended are compared to the original estimates.
  • This data is used by the project manager to monitor & control the project.
  • Product metrics are measures of the software product at any stage of its development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics may measure:
  • the complexity of the software design
  • the size of the final program
  • the number of pages of documentation produced
  1. Product metrics
  • Product metrics are measures of the software product at any stage of its development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics may measure:
  • the complexity of the software design
  • the size of the final program
  • the number of pages of documentation produced


Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: Costs fall into two categories. There are cost associated with developing the systems and there are costs associated with a operating a system. view more..
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Ans: System selection means selecting the various hardware, software, and services that are needed for implanting the system. Before the system selection can be done, it is necessary to know the capabilities of required proposed system view more..
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Ans: It is a final report of the feasibility study about the findings and conclusion of the study. it should be possible to review report and take decision on the project based on it view more..
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Ans: Quantitative measure of degree to which a system, component or process possesses a given attribute For ex. No. of errors found per person hours expended Cost and Effort Estimation : Boehm’s COCOMO model, Putnam’s SLIM Model & Albrecht’s function model. view more..
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Ans: There are three such classes: Process are collection of software related activities. Products are any artifacts, deliverables or documents that result from a process activity view more..
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Ans: A direct measure is obtained by applying measurement rules directly to the phenomenon of interest.For example, by using the specified counting rules, a software program’s “Line of Code” can be measured directly. and sofware reliabity is .... view more..
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Ans: What Is Information Systems Analysis and Design? Information systems analysis and design is a method used by companies ranging from IBM to PepsiCo to Sony to create and maintain information systems that perform basic business functions such as keeping track of customer names and addresses, processing orders, and paying employees. The main goal of systems analysis and design is to improve organizational systems, typically through applying software that can help employees accomplish key business tasks more easily and efficiently. As a systems analyst, you will be at the center of developing this software. view more..
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Ans: concurrency of components, lack of a global clock and independent failures of components and the ability to work well when the load or the number of users increases – failure handling, concurrency of components, transparency and providing quality of service view more..
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Ans: the wide range of applications in use today, from relatively localized systems (as found, for example, in a car or aircraft) to globalscale systems involving millions of nodes, from data-centric services to processorintensive tasks, from systems built from very small and relatively primitive sensors to those incorporating powerful computational elements, from embedded systems to ones that support a sophisticated interactive user experience, and so on. view more..
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Ans: The task of a web search engine is to index the entire contents of the World Wide Web, encompassing a wide range of information styles including web pages, multimedia sources and (scanned) books view more..
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Ans: The growth of the World Wide Web as a repository of information and knowledge; the development of web search engines such as Google and Yahoo to search this vast repository view more..
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Ans: The engineering of MMOGs represents a major challenge for distributed systems technologies, particularly because of the need for fast response times to preserve the user experience of the game. view more..
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Ans: a very different style of underlying architecture from the styles mentioned above (for example client-server), and such systems typically employ what is known as distributed event-based systems. view more..
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Ans: the emergence of ubiquitous computing coupled with the desire to support user mobility in distributed systems view more..
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Ans: The Internet is also a very large distributed system. It enables users, wherever they are, to make use of services such as the World Wide Web, email and file transfer. (Indeed, the Web is sometimes incorrectly equated with the Internet.) view more..
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Ans: Technological advances in device miniaturization and wireless networking have led increasingly to the integration of small and portable computing devices into distributed systems. view more..
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Ans: The crucial characteristic of continuous media types is that they include a temporal dimension, and indeed, the integrity of the media type is fundamentally dependent on preserving real-time relationships between elements of a media type. view more..
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Ans: hysical resources such as storage and processing can be made available to networked computers, removing the need to own such resources on their own. At one end of the spectrum, a user may opt for a remote storage facility for file storage requirements view more..



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