Matter in our surroundings
There are three types of matter:-
It is something which has volume and occupies mass.
The spaces between particles of matter is known as inter-particle spaces.
Gases have more spaces between there particle as compare to solid and liquid.
GASES LIQUID SOLID
There are no inter- particle in solids because the particles of solids are tightly packed.
Diffusion: - the intermixing of particles of two different type of matter is known as diffusion. For ex – water and salt, milk and sugar, oil and water etc.
The particle of solids are tightly packed and particles of gases are loosely packed Since, we heat the object. It’s kinetic energy is increase due to increase and velocity of object.
The particles of substances keep moving. They collide with each other and as well as with the walls of the container.
- They always move in the Brownian motion.
- They have inter- particles spaces.
The particles of solids are tightly packed. So, the force of attraction is maximum.
The particles of gases are loosely packed. So, the force of attraction is minimum.
Change of matter
- Solid to liquid is fusion
- Liquid to solid is freezing
- Liquid to gas is evaporation
- Gas to liquid is condensation
- Gas to solid is sublimation
- Solid to gas is sublimation
Fusion :- the process in which solids gets converted into liquid For example, ice to water, metal to liquid etc.
Boiling point :- the temperature at which liquids gets converted into vapours state at the atmospheric pressure.
Latent of fusion :- the material required to convert 1kg of solid into liquid at the atmospheric pressure at it’s boiling point.
Melting point :- the temperature at which solids get converted into liquid state at the atmospheric pressure.
Vaporization :- the process in which liquids get converted into gaseous state
Latent heat of vaporisation :- the material required to convert 1kg of liquid into vapours state at a atmospheric pressure at it’s melting point.
Sublimation- the process at which solids gets directly converted into gas or vice-versa
By changing pressure of matter we can change the state of matter from matter to another matter.
Evaporation- it is the natural phenomena from which liquids gets converted into vapours state.
Q 1 Differentiate between evaporation and boiling.
- It is a surface phenomena.
- It can evaporate at any temperature below it’s boiling point.
- It is bulk phenomena.
- It can boil at particular temperature.
Cause of Evaporation
it gain energy from surroundings. Therefore, if we heat it, it’s kinetic energy of particle increase as compare to other particles.
Increase of evaporation
- Surface area- increase of surface area will increase a rate of evaporation.
- Temperature- increase of temperature will increase a rate of evaporation.
- Humidity- the water droplets present in the surroundings is called humidity. Decrease of humidity will increase of rate of evaporation.
- Wind speed- when the wind speed is increase the rate of evaporation will increase.
Temperature Unit Conversion
The point which tells the coldness and shortness of any matter
There are of three types of temperature:-
Convert Celsius to kelvin
155C to kelvin
K= 155C + 273
854C to kelvin
K= 854C + 273
Convert kelvin to Celsius
215K to Celsius
488K to Celsius