Operating System Concepts ( Multi tasking, multi programming, multi-user, Multi-threading )

Basic Concepts of Operating System

Operating system acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It is something which relieves the user from bothering about hardware related issues. It creates a user-friendly environment wherein the user needs to focus only on the program's logic and need not to write the code for the functions required to access hardware.

For example, if the user wants to print something then he or she simply uses the print function. This now acts as a system call and now the operating system will itself understand this and will deal with the hardware to get it done. User does not require to interfere anyhow.

Moreover, it acts as a resource allocator also and takes care that all the running programs can access the hardware with a fair share.

Multi tasking : In a multi tasking environment, operating system ensures that multiple tasks run on a single system by sharing the CPU time. Though they access the CPU one by one, it appears to the user that all the tasks are running simultaneously.

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For example, while one has opened multiple tabs in a single browser and whenever the user switches from one tab to another, operating system schedules the current process to access the CPU. However, user is never concerned and this is how multi tasking is achieved.

Multi programming : It is the most important feature of an operating system wherein multiple programs reside in the main memory at the same time and the operating system ensures that whenever one process i.e., program in active state goes to wait for I/O devices then it schedules another process to access the CPU.

The most important aim here is not letting the CPU remain idle or waiting for any process to resume from the I/O work. OS always takes care of that.

Multi user Operating System : In this kind of environment, multiple number of users can access a single device or processor at the same time and the operating system ensures that one user's work never interferes with other's work.

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For example, a common printer device is shared among multiple users within an organization. Now operating system schedules the processes of various users accordingly.

Multi threading : A thread is a light weighted process or a part of a process. A process is broken into various threads which share some common resources of the parent process and possess some separate resources too and work independently for accomplishment of the entire process. This concurrent execution of multiple threads of a process is called multi threading. Its concept is very much like multi programming wherein multiple processes are there.

Frequently Asked Questions

Ans: Operating system acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It is something which relieves the user from bothering about hardware related issues. what is multitasking, Multiprogramming, Multiuser Operating System, Multithreading view more..
Ans: There are many types of operating systems that can be listed to study the types the operating systems. These types of operating systems are important as they explain us the evolution of the operating system with time. This evolution took place due to the customer’s demands and due to the enhancement in technology. There are 5 types of operating System- Batch Operating Systems, Time Sharing Systems, Distributed Operating Systems, Network Operating Systems, Real Time Operating Systems view more..
Ans: The main function of a batch processing system is to automatically keep executing the jobs in a batch. This is the important task of a batch processing system i.e. performed by the 'Batch Monitor' resided in the low end of main memory. This technique was possible due to the invention of hard-disk drives and card readers. Now the jobs could be stored on the disk to create the pool of jobs for its execution as a batch. view more..
Ans: Time Sharing Systems or multi-tasking systems are the major advancement in the batch processing systems. They are the one which support simultaneous execution of multiple tasks using a single processor. The time-sharing operating system assures that all the tasks get to access the CPU one by one and for a fixed small interval of time. This interval is known as the time quantum. view more..
Ans: Distributed Operating System is a recent advancement in the world of computer technology and are being widely accepted all-over the world and, that too, with a great pace view more..
Ans: Network Operating System is a collection of various computers which are all connected to a single host computer. It can be compared to a client – server architecture where the host computer acts as a server and rest of the systems act as clients which take services from the common server and access its resources also. view more..
Ans: Real time operating System (RTOS) is an operating system that serves the real-time systems. Before understanding the term “Real Time Operating System” we need to understand the two terms it comprises of i.e., Real Time Systems and Operating System. view more..
Ans: We can broadly classify these services into following five categories: Process management Device management Inter-process Communication File management Error detection view more..
Ans: there are 4 types of architectures of operating system: 1. Monolithic architecture 2. Layered architecture 3. Microkernel architecture 4. Hybrid architecture view more..
Ans: It is the oldest architecture of the operating system. We know that all the core software components of the operating system are collectively known as the kernel. view more..
Ans: This is an important architecture of operating system which is meant to overcome the disadvantages of early monolithic systems. view more..
Ans: The basic ideology in this architecture is to keep the kernel as small as possible. We know that kernel is the core part of the operating system and hence it should be meant for handling the most important services only. view more..
Ans: the idea was to combine the best functionalities of all old approaches and hence this design is termed as the hybrid structured operating system. view more..
Ans: System Calls and Programs All the present-day operating systems support the following two modes of operation for the CPU: User mode Kernel mode view more..
Ans: A batch system executes jobs, whereas a time-shared system has user programs, or tasks. Even on a single-user system such as Microsoft Windows, a user may be able to run several programs at one time: a word processor, a web browser, and an e-mail package. Even if the user can execute only one program at a time, the operating system may need to suppoft its own internal programmed activities, such as memory management. view more..

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