Database-System Applications




Databases are widely used. Here are some representative applications:

 

1. Enterprise Information

  • Sales: For customer, product, and purchase information.?
  • Accounting: For payments, receipts, account balances, assets and other

          accounting information.

  • Human resources: For information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes,

and benefits, and for generation of paychecks.

  • Manufacturing: For management of the supply chain and for tracking

production of items in factories, inventories of items inwarehouses and stores,

Topics You May Be Interested In
What Is Database Management System Introduction To Database Security Issues
Relational Databases Xml: Extensible Markup Language
History Of Database Systems Relational Query Languages
Structure Of Relational Databases Overview Of Object Database Concepts
Introduction To Database Security Issues Additional Basic Operations-the Rename Operation

and orders for items.

  • Online retailers: For sales data noted above plus online order tracking,

generation of recommendation lists, and maintenance of online product

evaluations.

2.? Banking and Finance

  • Banking: For customer information, accounts, loans, and banking transactions.
  • Credit card transactions: For purchases on credit cards and generation of
monthly statements.
  • Finance: For storing information about holdings, sales, and purchases of
financial instruments such as stocks and bonds; also for storing real-time
market data to enable online trading by customers and automated trading
by the firm.

3. Universities:

  • For student information, course registrations, and grades (in

addition to standard enterprise information such as human resources and

Topics You May Be Interested In
What Is Database Management System Xml: Extensible Markup Language
Constraints And Characteristics Of Specialization And Generalization Hierarchies Entity Types, Entity Sets, Keys, And Value Sets-2
Keys Refining The Er Design For The Company Database
Introduction To Database Security Issues Access Control, User Accounts, And Database Audits
Discretionary Access Control Based On Granting And Revoking Privileges Database Security And The Dba

accounting).

4. Airlines:

  • For reservations and schedule information. Airlines were among the

first to use databases in a geographically distributed manner.

5. Telecommunication:

  • For keeping records of calls made, generating monthly

bills, maintaining balances on prepaid calling cards, and storing information

about the communication networks.

Topics You May Be Interested In
Database-system Applications Overview Of The Sql Query Language
Example Of Other Notation: Representing Specialization And Generalization In Uml Class Diagrams Sql Data Definition
Specialty Databases Entity Types, Entity Sets, Keys, And Value Sets-2
Database Schema Er Diagrams, Naming Conventions, And Design Issues
Chapter 11 Object And Object-relational Databases Control Measures

 

As the list illustrates, databases form an essential part of every enterprise today,
storing not only types of information that are common to most enterprises, but
also information that is specific to the category of the enterprise.

Over the course of the last four decades of the twentieth century, use of
databases grewin all enterprises. In the early days, very few people interacted directly
with database systems, although without realizing it, they interacted with
databases indirectly—through printed reports such as credit card statements, or
through agents such as bank tellers and airline reservation agents. Then automated
teller machines came along and let users interact directly with databases.
Phone interfaces to computers (interactive voice-response systems) also allowed
users to deal directly with databases—a caller could dial a number, and press
phone keys to enter information or to select alternative options, to find flight
arrival/departure times, for example, or to register for courses in a university.

The Internet revolution of the late 1990s sharply increased direct user access to
databases. Organizations converted many of their phone interfaces to databases
into Web interfaces, and made a variety of services and information available
online. For instance, when you access an online bookstore and browse a book or
music collection, you are accessing data stored in a database. When you enter an
order online, your order is stored in a database.When you access a bankWeb site
and retrieve your bank balance and transaction information, the information is
retrieved from the bank’s database system.When you access aWeb site, informa-
tion about you may be retrieved from a database to select which advertisements
you should see. Furthermore, data about your Web accesses may be stored in a
database.

Topics You May Be Interested In
View Of Data Entity Types, Entity Sets, Keys, And Value Sets-2
Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, And Ontology Concepts Example Of Notation- Uml Class Diagrams
Using High-level Conceptual Data Models For Database Design Relationship Types Of Degree Higher Than Two
Introduction To Database Security Issues Access Control, User Accounts, And Database Audits
The Natural Join Aggregate Functions

Thus, although user interfaces hide details of access to a database, and most
people are not even aware they are dealing with a database, accessing databases
forms an essential part of almost everyone’s life today.
The importance of database systems can be judged in another way—today,
database system vendors like Oracle are among the largest software companies
in the world, and database systems form an important part of the product line of
Microsoft and IBM.

 

 



Frequently Asked Questions

+
Ans: A database-management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access those data. view more..
+
Ans: The specialization relationship may also be referred to as a superclass-subclass relationship. Higher- and lower-level entity sets also may be designated by the terms superclass and subclass, respectively. The person entity set is the superclass of the employee and student subclasses. view more..
+
Ans: A database system is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs that allow users to access and modify these data. A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. That is, the system hides certain details of how the data are stored and maintained. view more..
+
Ans: Databases are widely used in enterprises, banking and finance, universities, airlines, telecommunication, etc. view more..
+
Ans: Specialization is the process of defining a set of subclasses of an entity type; this entity type is called the superclass of the specialization. We use the term generalization to refer to the process of defining a generalized entity type from the given entity types. view more..
+
Ans: we discuss differences between specialization/generalization lattices (multiple inheritance) and hierarchies (single inheritance), and elaborate on the differences between the specialization and generalization processes during conceptual database schema design. We discuss constraints that apply to a single specialization or a single generalization. view more..
+
Ans: it is sometimes necessary to represent a single superclass/subclass relationship with more than one superclass, where the superclasses represent different entity types. In this case, the subclass will represent a collection of objects that is a subset of the UNION of distinct entity types. view more..
+
Ans: For our sample database application, consider a UNIVERSITY database that keeps track of students and their majors, transcripts, and registration as well as of the university’s course offerings. The database also keeps track of the sponsored research projects of faculty and graduate students. view more..
+
Ans: The basic notation for specialization/generalization is to connect the subclasses by vertical lines to a horizontal line, which has a triangle connecting the horizontal line through another vertical line to the superclass. A blank triangle indicates a specialization/generalization with the disjoint constraint, and a filled triangle indicates an overlapping constraint. view more..
+
Ans: The similarities and differences between conceptual modeling and knowledge representation, and introduces some of the alternative terminology and a few additional concepts.The goal of KR techniques is to develop concepts for accurately modeling some domain of knowledge by creating an ontology that describes the concepts of the domain and how these concepts are interrelated. view more..
+
Ans: Recovery from transaction failures usually means that the database is restored to the most recent consistent state just before the time of failure. To do this, the system must keep information about the changes that were applied to data items by the various transactions. view more..
+
Ans: Several types of locks are used in concurrency control. To introduce locking concepts gradually, first we discuss binary locks, which are simple, but are also too restrictive for database concurrency control purposes, and so are not used in practice. Then shared/exclusive locks - also known as read/write locks - which provide more general locking capabilities and are used in practical database locking systems. view more..
+
Ans: In this section we discuss the concepts of concurrent execution of transactions and recovery from transaction failures. view more..
+
Ans: Conceptual modeling is a very important phase in designing a successful database application. Generally, the term database application refers to a particular database and the associated programs that implement the database queries and updates. view more..
+
Ans: Data is converted into information, and information is then evaluated and organised so that it can be used purposefully as knowledge. view more..
+
Ans: A database system is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs that allow users to access and modify these data. A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. That is, the system hides certain details of how the data are stored and maintained. view more..
+
Ans: In this section we discuss the concepts of concurrent execution of transactions and recovery from transaction failures view more..
+
Ans: This chapter discusses techniques for securing databases against a variety of threats. It also presents schemes of providing access privileges to authorized users. view more..




Rating - 3/5
511 views

Advertisements