# COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

**Frequently Asked Questions**

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Ans: C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions. view more..

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Ans: The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by
the number of digit symbols in the system.
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Ans: A number system defines a set of values used to represent
quantity.
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Ans: A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'. view more..

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Ans: Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed
by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von
Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety
of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage,
cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of
computers is presented below based on their power and their
use. view more..

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Ans: Supercomputer is the most expensive and fastest type of
computer that performs at or near the currently highest
operational rate for computers. A Cray supercomputer is
a typical example. These are employed for specialized
applications that require immense amounts of mathematical
calculations such as weather forecasting, nuclear energy
research, and petroleum exploration etc. view more..

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Ans: A mainframe computer supports a vast number of users to
work simultaneously and remotely. Apart from providing
multi-user facility, it can process large amounts of data at very
high speeds and support many input, output and auxiliary
storage devices. These computers are very large in size, and
expensive. The main difference between a supercomputer
and a mainframe is that a supercomputer can execute a single
program faster than a mainframe, whereas a mainframe uses
its power to execute many programs concurrently. view more..

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Ans: A number system defines a set of values used to represent
quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in
a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the
number of students attending a class. view more..

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Ans: The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by
the number of digit symbols in the system. For example,
binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols
and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.
view more..

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Ans: Most people today use decimal representation to count. This
number system uses TEN different symbols to represent
values. In the decimal system there are 10 digit symbols
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9
with 0 having the least value and 9 having the greatest value.
For a number represented in decimal system, the digit on the
extreme left has the greatest value, whereas the digit on the
extreme right has the least value. view more..

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Ans: Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols
Number system Base Digital symbols
Binary 2 0, 1
Ternary 3 0, 1, 2
Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3
Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B
Hexadecimal 16 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
Vigesimal 20 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J view more..

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Ans: To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying
each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight
values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are
added to obtain the value of the decimal number.
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Ans: To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the
systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8
method is used. This method is explained by the following
Converting (359)10 to octal.
(a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a
remainder.
(b) Divide the quotient by eight and obtain a new quotient and a
remainder.
(c) Repeat step (b) until the quotient is equal to zero (0).
(d) The first remainder produced is the LSB in the octal number and
the last remainder (R) is the MSB. Accordingly, the octal number
is then written (from left to right) with the MSB occurring first. view more..

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Ans: To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal
equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been
multiplied by its associated weight. view more..

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Ans: A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system
only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The
symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents
the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number
system, the value “two” is represented by placing the symbol “1” on
the left–hand side of the symbol “0” resulting in the binary equivalent
“10”. Next, the value “three” is represented by “11” in the binary number
systemby replacing the “ 0 ” in “10” by the next higher value symbol “1”. view more..

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Ans: The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is
mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or
“1”, is referred to. view more..

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Ans: All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary
memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used
in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM).
Here “random access” means that any storage location can be
accessed (both read and write) directly. view more..

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Ans: It is another type of memory that retains data and instructions
stored in it even when the power
is turned off. ROM is used in
personal computers for storing
start-up instructions provided
by the manufacturer for
carrying out basic operations
such as bootstrapping in a PC,
and is programmed for specific
purposes during their fabrication. view more..

## Recommended Posts:

- What is a Computer ?
- Introduction - What Is A Computer
- Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History
- Generations Of Computers
- Classification Of Computers
- Anatomy Of A Computer
- Memory Revisited
- Introduction To Operating System
- Operational Overview Of CPU
- Introduction To Number System
- Base Of A Number System
- COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C
- What is a bit
- Primary Memory
- Primary Memory

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