# Primary Memory

All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM). Here “random access” means that any storage location can be accessed (both read and write) directly.

**Frequently Asked Questions**

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Ans: The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is
mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or
“1”, is referred to. view more..

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Ans: A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system
only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The
symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents
the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number
system, the value “two” is represented by placing the symbol “1” on
the left–hand side of the symbol “0” resulting in the binary equivalent
“10”. Next, the value “three” is represented by “11” in the binary number
systemby replacing the “ 0 ” in “10” by the next higher value symbol “1”. view more..

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Ans: To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal
equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been
multiplied by its associated weight. view more..

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Ans: All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary
memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used
in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM).
Here “random access” means that any storage location can be
accessed (both read and write) directly. view more..

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Ans: It is another type of memory that retains data and instructions
stored in it even when the power
is turned off. ROM is used in
personal computers for storing
start-up instructions provided
by the manufacturer for
carrying out basic operations
such as bootstrapping in a PC,
and is programmed for specific
purposes during their fabrication. view more..

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Ans: There are four main types of secondary storage devices
available in a computer system:
Disk drives
CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD)
Tape drives
USB flash drives view more..

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Ans: Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor
to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere
on the system board.
view more..

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Ans: A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of
the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a
microcomputer system.
view more..

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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers
to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number,
each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with
ones and ones with zero. view more..

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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers
to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number,
each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with
ones and ones with zero. view more..

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Ans: 2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment
of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard
method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation
of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant
advantage of only having one encoding for 0.
view more..

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Ans: A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number
of logic variables involved with one another through the
logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’. view more..

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Ans: The AND gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more
inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output (1) only
if all its inputs are HIGH. view more..

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Ans: The OR gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more
inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output if one or
more of its inputs are HIGH. view more..

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Ans: NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as
it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state
is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the
output.
The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the
value to be inverted. view more..

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Ans: The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will
give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are
HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of
the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A
or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a logic 1 output
only if the two inputs are different. If the inputs are the same,
the output is a logic 0. XOR is also called an anti-coincidence
gate or inequality detector. view more..

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Ans: The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT
gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate
circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either
LOW or HIGH view more..

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Ans: A programming language can be defined formally as an
artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is
composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable
to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer
languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since the
1940’s. Assembly language was the normal choice for writing
system software like operating systems, etc. But, C has
been used to develop system software since its emergence.
The UNIX operating system and its descendants are mostly
written in C. Application programs are designed for specific
computer applications. Most programming languages are
designed to be good for one category of applications but not
necessarily for the other. For an instance, COBOL is more
suitable for business applications whereas FORTRAN is
more suitable for scientific applications. view more..

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