Primary Memory






Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM). Here “random access” means that any storage location can be accessed (both read and write) directly. view more..
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Ans: The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to. view more..
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Ans: A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “two” is represented by placing the symbol “1” on the left–hand side of the symbol “0” resulting in the binary equivalent “10”. Next, the value “three” is represented by “11” in the binary number systemby replacing the “ 0 ” in “10” by the next higher value symbol “1”. view more..
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Ans: It is another type of memory that retains data and instructions stored in it even when the power is turned off. ROM is used in personal computers for storing start-up instructions provided by the manufacturer for carrying out basic operations such as bootstrapping in a PC, and is programmed for specific purposes during their fabrication. view more..
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Ans: There are four main types of secondary storage devices available in a computer system: Disk drives CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD) Tape drives USB flash drives view more..
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Ans: Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board. view more..
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Ans: A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system. view more..
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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero. view more..
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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero. view more..
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Ans: 2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only having one encoding for 0. view more..
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Ans: A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’. view more..
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Ans: The AND gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output (1) only if all its inputs are HIGH. view more..
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Ans: The OR gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output if one or more of its inputs are HIGH. view more..
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Ans: NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the output. The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the value to be inverted. view more..
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Ans: The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a logic 1 output only if the two inputs are different. If the inputs are the same, the output is a logic 0. XOR is also called an anti-coincidence gate or inequality detector. view more..
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Ans: The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH view more..
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Ans: A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since the 1940’s. Assembly language was the normal choice for writing system software like operating systems, etc. But, C has been used to develop system software since its emergence. The UNIX operating system and its descendants are mostly written in C. Application programs are designed for specific computer applications. Most programming languages are designed to be good for one category of applications but not necessarily for the other. For an instance, COBOL is more suitable for business applications whereas FORTRAN is more suitable for scientific applications. view more..
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Ans: A program, written in source language, is translated by the compiler to produce a program in a target language. The source language is usually a high-level language. The target language may or not necessarily be machine language. In most cases, the target language is assembly language, and in which case, the target program must be translated by an assembler into an object program. Then the object program is linked with other object programs to build an executable program, which is normally saved in a specified location of the secondary memory. When it is needed to be executed, the executable file is loaded into main memory before its execution. The whole process is managed, coordinated and controlled by the underlying operating system. Sometimes the target language may be a language other than machine or assembly language, in which case a translator for that language must be used to obtain an executable object program. view more..




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