# ONE'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero. view more..
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Ans: A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system. view more..
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Ans: Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board. view more..
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Ans: 1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero. view more..
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Ans: 2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only having one encoding for 0. view more..
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Ans: A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’. view more..
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Ans: The AND gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output (1) only if all its inputs are HIGH. view more..
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Ans: The OR gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output if one or more of its inputs are HIGH. view more..
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Ans: NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the output. The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the value to be inverted. view more..
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Ans: The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a logic 1 output only if the two inputs are different. If the inputs are the same, the output is a logic 0. XOR is also called an anti-coincidence gate or inequality detector. view more..
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Ans: The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH view more..
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Ans: A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since the 1940’s. Assembly language was the normal choice for writing system software like operating systems, etc. But, C has been used to develop system software since its emergence. The UNIX operating system and its descendants are mostly written in C. Application programs are designed for specific computer applications. Most programming languages are designed to be good for one category of applications but not necessarily for the other. For an instance, COBOL is more suitable for business applications whereas FORTRAN is more suitable for scientific applications. view more..
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Ans: A program, written in source language, is translated by the compiler to produce a program in a target language. The source language is usually a high-level language. The target language may or not necessarily be machine language. In most cases, the target language is assembly language, and in which case, the target program must be translated by an assembler into an object program. Then the object program is linked with other object programs to build an executable program, which is normally saved in a specified location of the secondary memory. When it is needed to be executed, the executable file is loaded into main memory before its execution. The whole process is managed, coordinated and controlled by the underlying operating system. Sometimes the target language may be a language other than machine or assembly language, in which case a translator for that language must be used to obtain an executable object program. view more..
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Ans: Lexical analysis In this phase, the source program is scanned for lexical units (known as tokens) namely, identifier, operator delimiter, etc. and classify them according to their types. A table, called symbol table, is constructed to record the type and attributes information of each user-defined name used in the program. This table is accessed in the other phases of compilation. view more..
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Ans: Syntax analysis In this phase, tokens are conflated into syntactic units such as expressions, statements, etc. that must conform to the syntax rules of the programming language. This process is known as parsing. Syntax is similar to the grammar of a language. Syntax rules specify the way in which valid syntactic elements are combined to form the statements of the language. Syntax rules are often described using a notation known as BNF (Backus Naur Form) grammar. view more..
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Ans: Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the operators and operands do not violate source language specification. view more..
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Ans: Intermediate code generation and optimization To make the target program a bit smaller or faster or both, many compilers produce an intermediate form of code for optimization. In most cases, the intermediate code is generated in assembly language or in a different language at a level between assembly language and machine language. view more..
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Ans: Code generation This is the final phase of a standard compilation which converts every statement of the optimized intermediate code into target code using predefined target language template. The target language template depends on the machine instructions of the processor, addressing modes and number of registers, etc. view more..

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