# Pressure in a fLuid

A fluid exerts a force perpendicular to any surface in contact with it, such as a container wall or a body immersed in the fluid. This is the force that you feel pressing on your legs when you dangle them in a swimming pool. Even when a fluid as a whole is at rest, the molecules that make up the fluid are in motion; the force exerted by the fluid is due to molecules colliding with their surroundings. Imagine a surface within a fluid at rest. For this surface and the fluid to remain at rest, the fluid must exert forces of equal magnitude but opposite direction on the surface’s two sides. Consider a small surface of area dA centered on a point in the fluid; the normal force exerted by the fluid on each side is dF# (Fig. 12.2). We define the pressure p at that point as the normal force per unit area—that is, the ratio of dF to dA (Fig. 12.3):

If the pressure is the same at all points of a finite plane surface with area A, then

where F1 is the net normal force on one side of the surface. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal, where

1 pascal = 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

We introduced the pascal in Chapter 11. Two related units, used principally in meteorology, are the bar, equal to 105 Pa, and the millibar, equal to 100 Pa. Atmospheric pressure pa is the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere, the pressure at the bottom of this sea of air in which we live. This pressure varies with weather changes and with elevation. Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level (an average value) is 1 atmosphere (atm), defined to be exactly 101,325 Pa. To four significant figures,

Caution Don’t confuse pressure and force In everyday language “pressure” and “force” mean pretty much the same thing. In fluid mechanics, however, these words describe very different quantities. Pressure acts perpendicular to any surface in a fluid, no matter how that surface is oriented (Fig. 12.3). Hence pressure has no direction of its own; it’s a scalar. By contrast, force is a vector with a definite direction. Remember, too, that pressure is force per unit area. As Fig. 12.3 shows, a surface with twice the area has twice as much force exerted on it by the fluid, so the pressure is the same.

## Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: A fluid is any substance that can flow and change the shape of the volume that it occupies. (By contrast, a solid tends to maintain its shape.) We use the term “fluid” for both gases and liquids. The key difference between them is that a liquid has cohesion, while a gas does not. The molecules in a liquid are close to one another, so they can exert attractive forces on each other and thus tend to stay together (that is, to cohere). That’s why a quantity of liquid maintains the same volume as it flows: If you pour 500 mL of water into a pan, the water will still occupy a volume of 500 mL. The molecules of a gas, by contrast, are separated on average by distances far larger than the size of a molecule. Hence the forces between molecules are weak, there is little or no cohesion, and a gas can easily change in volume. If you open the valve on a tank of compressed oxygen that has a volume of 500 mL, the oxygen will expand to a far greater volume. view more..
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Ans: Fluids play a vital role in many aspects of everyday life. We drink them, breathe them, swim in them. They circulate through our bodies and control our weather. The physics of fluids is therefore crucial to our understanding of both nature and technology view more..
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Ans: summary of equilibrium and elasticity view more..
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Ans: A fluid exerts a force perpendicular to any surface in contact with it, such as a container wall or a body immersed in the fluid. This is the force that you feel pressing on your legs when you dangle them in a swimming pool. Even when a fluid as a whole is at rest, the molecules that make up the fluid are in motion; the force exerted by the fluid is due to molecules colliding with their surroundings view more..
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Ans: If the weight of the fluid can be ignored, the pressure in a fluid is the same throughout its volume. We used that approximation in our discussion of bulk stress and strain in Section 11.4. But often the fluid’s weight is not negligible, and pressure variations are important. Atmospheric pressure is less at high altitude than at sea level, which is why airliner cabins have to be pressurized. When you dive into deep water, you can feel the increased pressure on your ears. view more..
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Ans: Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel. view more..
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Ans: If the pressure inside a car tire is equal to atmospheric pressure, the tire is flat. The pressure has to be greater than atmospheric to support the car, so the significant quantity is the difference between the inside and outside pressures. When we say that the pressure in a car tire is “32 pounds” (actually 32 lb>in.2 , equal to 220 kPa or 2.2 * 105 Pa), we mean that it is greater than atmospheric pressure (14.7 lb>in.2 or 1.01 * 105 Pa) by this amount. view more..
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Ans: The simplest pressure gauge is the open-tube manometer . The U-shaped tube contains a liquid of density r, often mercury or water. The left end of the tube is connected to the container where the pressure p is to be measured, and the right end is open to the atmosphere view more..
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Ans: A body immersed in water seems to weigh less than when it is in air. When the body is less dense than the fluid, it floats. The human body usually floats in water, and a helium-filled balloon floats in air. These are examples of buoyancy, a phenomenon described by Archimedes’s principle: view more..
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Ans: We’ve seen that if an object is less dense than water, it will float partially submerged. But a paper clip can rest atop a water surface even though its density is several times that of water. This is an example of surface tension: view more..
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Ans: We are now ready to consider motion of a fluid. Fluid flow can be extremely complex, as shown by the currents in river rapids or the swirling flames of a campfire. But we can represent some situations by relatively simple idealized models. An ideal fluid is a fluid that is incompressible (that is, its density cannot change) and has no internal friction (called viscosity). view more..
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Ans: The mass of a moving fluid doesn’t change as it flows. This leads to an important relationship called the continuity equation view more..
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Ans: According to the continuity equation, the speed of fluid flow can vary along the paths of the fluid. The pressure can also vary; it depends on height as in the static situation (see Section 12.2), and it also depends on the speed of flow. We can derive an important relationship called Bernoulli’s equation, view more..
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Ans: To derive Bernoulli’s equation, we apply the work–energy theorem to the fluid in a section of a flow tube. In Fig. 12.23 we consider the element of fluid that at some initial time lies between the two cross sections a and c. The speeds at the lower and upper ends are v1 and v2. In a small time interval dt, the fluid that is initially at a moves to b, a distance ds1 = v1 dt, and the fluid that is initially at c moves to d, a distance ds2 = v2 dt. The cross-sectional areas at the two ends are A1 and A2, as shown. The fluid is incompressible; hence by the continuity equation, Eq. (12.10), the volume of fluid dV passing any cross section during time dt is the same. That is, dV = A1 ds1 = A2 ds2. view more..
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Ans: HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES TO DEAL WITH view more..
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Ans: Viscosity is internal friction in a fluid. Viscous forces oppose the motion of one portion of a fluid relative to another. Viscosity is the reason it takes effort to paddle a canoe through calm water, but it is also the reason the paddle works. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, the flow of blood, the lubrication of engine parts, and many other situations view more..
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Ans: When the speed of a flowing fluid exceeds a certain critical value, the flow is no longer laminar. Instead, the flow pattern becomes extremely irregular and complex, and it changes continuously with time; there is no steady-state pattern. This irregular, chaotic flow is called turbulence view more..
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Ans: SUMMARY OF EVERY TOPIC OF FLUID MECHANISM. view more..

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