surface tension




We’ve seen that if an object is less dense than water, it will float partially submerged.
But a paper clip can rest atop a water surface even though its density is
several times that of water. This is an example of surface tension: The surface
of the liquid behaves like a membrane under tension . Surface tension
arises because the molecules of the liquid exert attractive forces on each
other. There is zero net force on a molecule within the interior of the liquid, but a
surface molecule is drawn into the interior (Fig. 12.15). Thus the liquid tends to
minimize its surface area, just as a stretched membrane does.

surface tension

 

 

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Surface tension explains why raindrops are spherical (not teardrop-shaped):
A sphere has a smaller surface area for its volume than any other shape. It also
explains why hot, soapy water is used for washing. To wash clothing thoroughly,
water must be forced through the tiny spaces between the fibers (Fig. 12.16). This
requires increasing the surface area of the water, which is difficult to achieve
because of surface tension. The job is made easier by increasing the temperature
of the water and adding soap, both of which decrease the surface tension.

surface tension

 

 

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Surface tension is important for a millimeter-sized water drop, which has a
relatively large surface area for its volume. (A sphere of radius r has surface area 4pr2  and volume (4p/3)r3
. The ratio of surface area to volume is 3/r, which
increases with decreasing radius.) But for large quantities of liquid, the ratio of
surface area to volume is relatively small, and surface tension is negligible compared
to pressure forces. For the remainder of this chapter, we’ll consider only
fluids in bulk and ignore the effects of surface tension.

 



Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: A body immersed in water seems to weigh less than when it is in air. When the body is less dense than the fluid, it floats. The human body usually floats in water, and a helium-filled balloon floats in air. These are examples of buoyancy, a phenomenon described by Archimedes’s principle: view more..
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Ans: The simplest pressure gauge is the open-tube manometer . The U-shaped tube contains a liquid of density r, often mercury or water. The left end of the tube is connected to the container where the pressure p is to be measured, and the right end is open to the atmosphere view more..
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Ans: We’ve seen that if an object is less dense than water, it will float partially submerged. But a paper clip can rest atop a water surface even though its density is several times that of water. This is an example of surface tension: view more..
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Ans: We are now ready to consider motion of a fluid. Fluid flow can be extremely complex, as shown by the currents in river rapids or the swirling flames of a campfire. But we can represent some situations by relatively simple idealized models. An ideal fluid is a fluid that is incompressible (that is, its density cannot change) and has no internal friction (called viscosity). view more..
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Ans: To derive Bernoulli’s equation, we apply the work–energy theorem to the fluid in a section of a flow tube. In Fig. 12.23 we consider the element of fluid that at some initial time lies between the two cross sections a and c. The speeds at the lower and upper ends are v1 and v2. In a small time interval dt, the fluid that is initially at a moves to b, a distance ds1 = v1 dt, and the fluid that is initially at c moves to d, a distance ds2 = v2 dt. The cross-sectional areas at the two ends are A1 and A2, as shown. The fluid is incompressible; hence by the continuity equation, Eq. (12.10), the volume of fluid dV passing any cross section during time dt is the same. That is, dV = A1 ds1 = A2 ds2. view more..
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Ans: Some of the earliest investigations in physical science started with questions that people asked about the night sky. Why doesn’t the moon fall to earth? Why do the planets move across the sky? Why doesn’t the earth fly off into space rather than remaining in orbit around the sun? The study of gravitation provides the answers to these and many related questions view more..
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Ans: To determine the value of the gravitational constant G, we have to measure the gravitational force between two bodies of known masses m1 and m2 at a known distance r. The force is extremely small for bodies that are small enough to be brought into the laboratory, but it can be measured with an instrument called a torsion balance, which Sir Henry Cavendish used in 1798 to determine G. view more..
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Ans: gravitational forces are negligible between ordinary household-sized objects but very substantial between objects that are the size of stars. Indeed, gravitation is the most important force on the scale of planets, stars, and galaxies view more..




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