# Decimal Fixed-Point Representation

The representation of decimal numbers in registers is a function of the binary code used to represent a decimal digit. A 4-bit decimal code requires four flip-flops for each decimal digit. The representation of 4385 in BCD requires I6 flip-flops, four flip-flops for each digit. The number will be represented in a register with I6 flip-flops as follows:

OIOO 001 1 1000 0101

By representing numbers in decimal we are wasting a considerable amount of storage space since the number of bits needed to store a decimal number in a binary code is greater than the number of bits needed for its equivalent binary representation. Also, the circuits required to perform decimal arithmetic are more complex. However, there are some advantages in the use of decimal representation because computer input and output data are generated by people who use the decimal system. Some applications, such as business data processing, require small amounts of arithmetic computations compared to the amount required for input and output of decimal data. For this reason, some computers and all electronic calculators perform arithmetic operations directly with the decimal data (in a binary code) and thus eliminate the need for conversion to binary and back to decimal. Some computer systems have hardware for arithmetic calculations with both binary and decimal data.

The representation of signed decimal numbers in BCD is similar to the representation of signed numbers in binary. We can either use the familiar signed-magnitude system or the signed-complement system. The sign of a decimal number is usually represented with four bits to conform with the 4-bit code of the decimal digits. It is customary to designate a plus with four 0' s and a minus with the BCD equivalent of 9, which is 1001 .

The signed-magnitude system is difficult to use with computers. The signed-complement system can be either the 9's or the 10's complement, but the 10's complement is the one most often used. To obtain the 10' s complement of a BCD number, we first take the 9's complement and then add one to the least significant digit. The 9' s complement is calculated from the subtraction of each digit from 9.

The procedures developed for the signed-2's complement system apply also to the signed-10's complement system for decimal numbers. Addition is done by adding all digits, including the sign digit, and discarding the end carry. Obviously, this assumes that all negative numbers are in 10's complement form. Consider the addition ( +375) + ( -240) = + 135 done in the signed10's complement system.

0 375 (0000 0011 0111 0101)BCD

+9 760 (1001 0111 0110 OOOO)BCD

0 135 (0000 0001 001 1 0101)BCD

The 9 in the leftmost position of the second number indicates that the number is negative. 9760 is the 10's complement of 0240. The two numbers are added and the end carry is discarded to obtain + 135. Of course, the decimal numbers inside the computer must be in BCD, including the sign digits. The addition is done with BCD adders (see Fig. 10-18).

The subtraction of decimal numbers either unsigned or in the signed-10' s complement system is the same as in the binary case. Take the 10' s complement of the subtrahend and add it to the minuend. Many computers have special hardware to perform arithmetic calculations directly with decimal numbers in BCD. The user of the computer can specify by programmed instructions that the arithmetic operations be performed with decimal numbers directly without having to convert them to binary.

+
Ans: An overflow condition can be detected by observing the carry into the sign bit position and the carry out of the sign bit position. If these two carries are not equal, an overflow condition is produced. view more..
+
Ans: When two numbers of n digits each are added and the sum occupies n + 1 digits, we say that an overflow occurred. When the addition is performed with paper and pencil, an overflow is not a problem since there is no limit to the width of the page to write down the sum. view more..
+
Ans: Subtraction of two signed binary numbers when negative numbers are in 2' s complement form is very simple and can be stated as follows: Take the 2's complement of the subtrahend (including the sign bit) and add it to the minuend (including the sign bit). A carry out of the sign bit position is discarded. view more..
+
Ans: The representation of decimal numbers in registers is a function of the binary code used to represent a decimal digit. A 4-bit decimal code requires four flip-flops for each decimal digit. view more..
+
Ans: The floating-point representation of a number has two parts. The first part represents a signed, fixed-point number called the mantissa. The second part designates the position of the decimal (or binary) point and is called the exponent. The fixed-point mantissa may be a fraction or an integer. For exam ple, the decimal number +6132.789 is represented in floating-point with a fraction and an exponent as follows: view more..
+
Ans: A floating-point number is said to be normalized if the most significant digit of the mantissa is nonzero. For example, the decimal number 350 is normalized but 00035 is not. Regardless of where the position of the radix point is assumed to be in the mantissa, the number is normalized only if its leftmost digit is nonzero. view more..
+
Ans: In previous sections we introduced the most common types of binary-coded data found in digital computers. Other binary codes for decimal numbers and alphanumeric characters are sometimes used. Digital computers also employ other binary codes for special applications. A few additional binary codes encountered in digital computers are presented in this section. view more..
+
Ans: Binary codes for decimal digits require a minimum of four bits. Numerous different codes can be formulated by arranging four or more bits in 10 distinct possible combinations. A few possibilities are shown in Table 3-6. view more..
+
Ans: The ASCII code (Table 3-4) is the standard code commonly used for the transmission of binary information. Each character is represented by a 7-bit code and usually an eighth bit is inserted for parity (see Sec. 3-6). The code consists of 128 characters. Ninety-five characters represent graphic symbols that include upper- and lowercase letters, numerals zero to nine, punctuation marks, and special symbols view more..
+
Ans: Binary information transmitted through some form of communication medium is subject to external noise that could change bits from 1 to 0, and vice versa. An error detection code is a binary code that detects digital errors during transmission. The detected errors cannot be corrected but their presence is indicated. The usual procedure is to observe the frequency of errors. If errors occur infrequently at random, the particular erroneous information is transmitted again. If the error occurs too often, the system is checked for malfunction view more..
+
Ans: Parity generator and checker networl<s are logic circuits constructed with exclusive-OR functions. This is because, as mentioned in Sec. 1·2, the exclusive-OR function of three or more varia.bles is by definition an odd function. An odd function is a logic function whose value is binary 1 if, and only if, an odd function number of variables are equal to 1. According to this definition, the P( even) is the exclusive-OR of x, y, and l because it is equal to 1 when either one or all three of the variables are equal to I (Table 3-7). The P(odd) function is the complement of the P(even) function. view more..
+
Ans: A digital system Is an interconnection of digital hardware module. that at'ClOinpl.lsh a specific Wormation-proceaslna taslc. Digital systems vary in size and complexi.ty interacting digital &om a few integrated circuits to a complex of interconnected and computers. Digital system design invariably UBeS a modular approach. The modules are constructed &om such digital components as ules registet&, are in decoders, terconnected arithmetic with common elements data and control paths , and control logic. The to fonn various moda digital computer system. view more..
+
Ans: The symbolic notation used to describe the microoperation transfers among registers is called a register transfer language. The term "register transfer" implies the availability of hardware logic circuits that can perform a stated microoperation and transfer the result of the operation to the same or another register. view more..
+
Ans: Computer registers are designated by capital letters (sometimes followed by numerals) to denote the function of the register. For example, the register that holds an address for the memory unit is usually called a memory address register and is designated by the name MAR. view more..
+
Ans: where P is a control signal generated in the control section. It is sometimes convenient to separate the control variables from the register transfer operation by specifying a control function. view more..
+
Ans: A typical digital computer has many registers, and paths must be provided to transfer information from one register to another. The number of wires will be excessive if separate lines are used between each register and all other registers in the system. view more..
+
Ans: The two selection lines S1 and S0 are connected to the selection inputs of all four multiplexers. The selection lines choose the four bits of one register and transfer them into the four-line common bus. When S1S0 = 00, the 0 data inputs of all four multiplexers are selected and applied to the outputs that form the bus view more..
+
Ans: A bus system can be constructed with three-state gates instead of multiplexers. A three-state gate is a digital circuit that exhibits three states. Two of the states are signals equivalent to logic 1 and 0 as in a conventional gate. The third state is a high-impedance state. view more..

Rating - 3/5
450 views