Register Transfer -2




control function:

where P is a control signal generated in the control section. It is sometimes convenient to separate the control variables from the register transfer operation by specifying a control function.A control function is a Boolean variable that is equal to 1 or 0. The control function is included in the statement as follows:

                       P: R2 <-- R1

The control condition is terminated with a colon. It symbolizes the requirement that the transfer operation be executed by the hardware only if P = 1.

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Every statement written in a register transfer notation implies a hardware construction for implementing the transfer. Figure 4-2 shows the block diagram that depicts the transfer from R1 to R2. The n outputs of register R1 are connected to the n inputs of register R2. The letter n will be used to indicate any number of bits for the register. It will be replaced by an actual number when the length of the register is known. Register R2 has a load input that is activated by the control variable P. It is assumed that the control variable is synchronized with the same clock as the one applied to the register. As shown in the timing diagram, P is activated in the control section by the rising edge of a clock pulse at time t. The next positive transition of the clock at time t + 1 finds the load input active and the data inputs of R2 are then loaded into the register in parallel. P may go back to 0 at time t + 1; otherwise, the transfer will occur with every clock pulse transition while P remains active.

Register Transfer -2

 

 

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Note that the clock is not included as a variable in the register transfer statements. It is assumed that all transfers occur during a clock edge transition. Even though the control condition such as P becomes active just after time t, the actual transfer does not occur until the register is triggered by the next positive transition of the clock at time t + 1.

The basic symbols of the register transfer notation are listed in Table 4-1 . Registers are denoted by capital letters, and numerals may follow the letters. Parentheses are used to denote a part of a register by specifying the range of bits or by giving a symbol name to a portion of a register. The arrow denotes a transfer of information and the direction of transfer. A comma is used to separate two or more operations that are executed at the same time. The statement 

        T: R2 +- R1, R1 +- R2

denotes an operation that exchanges the contents of two registers during one common clock pulse provided that T = 1. This simultaneous operation is possible with registers that have edge-triggered flip-flops.

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Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: Computer registers are designated by capital letters (sometimes followed by numerals) to denote the function of the register. For example, the register that holds an address for the memory unit is usually called a memory address register and is designated by the name MAR. view more..
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Ans: The symbolic notation used to describe the microoperation transfers among registers is called a register transfer language. The term "register transfer" implies the availability of hardware logic circuits that can perform a stated microoperation and transfer the result of the operation to the same or another register. view more..
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Ans: A digital system Is an interconnection of digital hardware module. that at'ClOinpl.lsh a specific Wormation-proceaslna taslc. Digital systems vary in size and complexi.ty interacting digital &om a few integrated circuits to a complex of interconnected and computers. Digital system design invariably UBeS a modular approach. The modules are constructed &om such digital components as ules registet&, are in decoders, terconnected arithmetic with common elements data and control paths , and control logic. The to fonn various moda digital computer system. view more..
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Ans: where P is a control signal generated in the control section. It is sometimes convenient to separate the control variables from the register transfer operation by specifying a control function. view more..
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Ans: A typical digital computer has many registers, and paths must be provided to transfer information from one register to another. The number of wires will be excessive if separate lines are used between each register and all other registers in the system. view more..
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Ans: The two selection lines S1 and S0 are connected to the selection inputs of all four multiplexers. The selection lines choose the four bits of one register and transfer them into the four-line common bus. When S1S0 = 00, the 0 data inputs of all four multiplexers are selected and applied to the outputs that form the bus view more..
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Ans: A bus system can be constructed with three-state gates instead of multiplexers. A three-state gate is a digital circuit that exhibits three states. Two of the states are signals equivalent to logic 1 and 0 as in a conventional gate. The third state is a high-impedance state. view more..
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Ans: The operation of a memory unit was described in Sec. 2-7. The transfer of information from a memory word to the outside environment is called a read operation. view more..
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Ans: To implement the add microoperation with hardware, we need the registers that hold the data and the digital component that performs the arithmetic addition. The digital circuit that forms the arithmetic sum of two bits and a previous carry is called a full-adder . view more..
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Ans: The subtraction of binary numbers can be done most conveniently by means of complements as discussed in Sec. 3-2. Remember that the subtraction A - B can be done by taking the 2's complement of B and adding it to A. The 2's complement can be obtained by taking the 1' s complement and adding one to the least significant pair of bits. The 1's complement can be implemented with inverters and a one can be added to the sum through the input carry. view more..
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Ans: The increment microoperation adds one to a number in a register. For example, if a 4-bit register has a binary value 0110, it will go toO! II afterit is incremented. This microoperation is easily implemented with a binary counter view more..
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Ans: Logic microoperations specify binary operations for strings of bits stored in registers. These operations consider each bit of the register separately and treat them as binary variables. For example, the exclusive-OR microoperation with the contents of two registers . view more..
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Ans: There are 16 different logic operations that can be performed with two binary variables. They can be determined from all possible truth tables obtained with two binary variables as shown in Table 4-5. In this table, each of the 16 columns F0 through F15 represents a truth table of one possible Boolean function for the view more..
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Ans: The hardware implementation of logic rnicrooperations requires that logic gates be inserted for each bit or pair of bits in the registers to perform the required logic function. Although there are 16 logic rnicrooperations, most computers use only four-AND, OR, XOR (exclusive-OR), and complementfrom which all others can be derived. view more..
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Ans: Logic microoperations are very useful for manipulating individual bits or a portion of a word stored in a register. They can be used to change bit values, delete a group of bits, or insert new bit values into a register. view more..
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Ans: The selective-set operation sets to 1 the bits in register A where there are corresponding 1's in register B. It does not affect bit positions that have D's in B. The following numerical example clarifies this operation. view more..
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Ans: Shift rnicrooperations are used for serial transfer of data. They are also used in conjunction with arithmetic, logic, and other data-processing operations. The contents of a register can be shifted to the left or the right. At the same time that the bits are shifted, the first flip-flop receives its binary information from the serial input view more..
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Ans: Instead of having individual registers performing the microoperations directly, computer systems employ a number of storage registers connected to a common operational unit called an arithmetic logic unit, abbreviated ALU. view more..




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