operation code




An instruction code is a group of bits that instruct the computer to perform a specific operation. It is usually divided into parts, each having its own particular interpretation. The most basic part of an instruction code is its operation part. The operation code of an instruction is a group of bits that define such operations as add, subtract, multiply, shift, and complement. The number of bits required for the operation code of an instruction depends on the total number of operations available in the computer. The operation code must consist of at least n bits for a given 2" (or less) distinct operations. As an illustration, consider a computer with 64 distinct operations, one of them being an ADD operation. The operation code consists of six bits, with a bit configuration 110010 assigned to the ADD operation . When this operation code is decoded in the control unit, the computer issues control signals to read an operand from memory and add the operand to a processor register.

At this point we must recognize the relationship between a computer operation and a microoperation. An operation is part of an instruction stored in computer memory. It is a binary code that tells the computer to perform a specific operation. The control unit receives the instruction from memory and interprets the operation code bits. It then issues a sequence of control signals to initiate microoperations in internal computer registers. For every operation code, the control issues a sequence of microoperations needed for the hardware implementation of the specified operation. For this reason, an operation code is sometimes called a macrooperation because it specifies a set of microoperations.

The operation part of an instruction code specifies the operation to be performed. This operation must be performed on some data stored in processor registers or in memory. An instruction code must therefore specify not only the operation but also the registers or the memory words where the operands are to be found, as well as the register or memory word where the result is to be stored. Memory words can be specified in instruction codes by their address. Processor registers can be specified by assigning to the instruction another binary code of k bits that specifies one of 2 ' registers. There are many variations for arranging the binary code of instructions, and each computer has its own particular instruction code format. Instruction code formats are conceived by computer designers who specify the architecture of the computer. In this chapter we choose a particular instruction code to explain the basic organization and design of digital computers.



Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: In this chapter we introduce a basic computer and show how its operation can be puter specified with register is defined by its internal transfer registers, statements. the limirlg The otganization and control of structure, the comand the set of instructions that It uses. The design of the computer is then carried out in detall. Although the basic computer presented in this chap view more..
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Ans: Instead of having individual registers performing the microoperations directly, computer systems employ a number of storage registers connected to a common operational unit called an arithmetic logic unit, abbreviated ALU. view more..
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Ans: Shift rnicrooperations are used for serial transfer of data. They are also used in conjunction with arithmetic, logic, and other data-processing operations. The contents of a register can be shifted to the left or the right. At the same time that the bits are shifted, the first flip-flop receives its binary information from the serial input view more..
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Ans: An instruction code is a group of bits that instruct the computer to perform a specific operation. It is usually divided into parts, each having its own particular interpretation. The most basic part of an instruction code is its operation part. The operation code of an instruction is a group of bits that define such operations as add, view more..
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Ans: The simplest way to organize a computer is to have one processor register and an instruction code format with two parts. The first part specifies the operation to be performed and the second specifies an address. The memory address tells the control where to find an operand in memory. This operand is read from memory and used as the data to be operated on together with the data stored in the processor register view more..
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Ans: In this chapter we introduce a basic computer and show how its operation can be puter specified with register is defined by its internal transfer registers, statements. the limirlg The otganization and control of structure, the comand the set of instructions that It uses. The design of the computer is then carried out in detall. Although the basic computer presented in this chapter is very small compared to commercial computers, It has the advantage of being simple enough so we can demonstrate the design process without too many complications. view more..
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Ans: It is sometimes convenient to use the address bits of an instruction code not as an address but as the actual operand. When the second part of an instruction code specifies an operand, the instruction is said to have an immediate operand. view more..
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Ans: Computer instructions are normally stored in consecutive memory locations and are executed sequentially one at a time. The control reads an instruction from a specific address in memory and executes it. It then continues by reading the next instruction in sequence and executes it, and so on. view more..
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Ans: The memory address register (AR) has 12 bits since this is the width of a memory address. The program counter (PC) also has 12 bits and it holds the address of the next instruction to be read from memory after the current instruction is executed. The PC goes through a counting sequence and causes the computer to read sequential instructions previously stored in memory. Instruction words are read and executed in sequence unless a branch instruction is encountered. view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has eight registers, a memory unit, and a control unit. Paths must be provided to transfer information from one register to another and between memory and registers. view more..
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Ans: The input data and output data of the memory are connected to the common bus, but the memory address is connected to AR. Therefore, AR must always be used to specify a memory address. By using a single register for the address, we eliminate the need for an address bus that would have been needed otherwise. The content of any register can be specified for the memory data input during a write operation. Similarly, any register can receive the data from memory after a read operation except AC . view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has three instruction code formats, as shown in Fig. 5-5. Each format has 16 bits. The operation code (opcode) part of the instruction contains three bits and the meaning of the remaining 13 bits depends on the operation code encountered. view more..
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Ans: Before investigating the operations performed by the instructions, let us discuss the type of instructions that must be included in a computer. A computer should have a set of instructions so that the user can construct machine language programs to evaluate any function that is known to be computable. The set of instructions are said to be complete if the computer includes a sufficient number of instructions in each of the following categories: view more..
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Ans: The timing for all registers in the basic computer is controlled by a master clock generator. The clock pulses are applied to all flip-flops and registers in the system, including the flip-flops and registers in the control unit. The clock pulses do not change the state of a register unless the register is enabled by view more..
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Ans: The last three waveforms in Fig. 5-7 show how SC is cleared when D3T4 = I. Output D3 from the operation decoder becomes active at the end of timing signal T2• When timing signal T4 becomes active, the output of the AND gate that implements the control function D3T4 becomes active. This signal is applied to the CLR input of SC. view more..
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Ans: A program residing in the memory unit of the computer consists of a sequence of instructions. The program is executed in the computer by going through a cycle for each instruction. Each instruction cycle in turn is subdivided into a sequence of subcycles or phases. In the basic computer each instruction cycle consists of the following phases: view more..
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Ans: Initially, the program counter PC is loaded with the address of the first instruction in the program. The sequence counter SC is cleared to 0, providing a decoded timing signal To. After each clock pulse, SC is incremented by one, so that the timing signals go through a sequence T0, T1, T2, and so on. The rnicrooperations for the fetch and decode phases can be specified by the following register transfer statements. view more..
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Ans: The timing signal that is active after the decoding is T3• During time T,, the control unit determines the type of instruction that was just read from memory. The flowchart of Fig. 5-9 presents an initial configuration for the instruction cycle and shows how the control determines the instruction type after the decoding. The three possible instruction types available in the basic computer are specified in Fig. 5-5. view more..




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