Indirect Address




It is sometimes convenient to use the address bits of an instruction code not as an address but as the actual operand. When the second part of an instruction code specifies an operand, the instruction is said to have an immediate operand. When the second part specifies the address of an operand, the instruction is said to have a direct address. This is in contrast to a third possibility called indirect address, where the bits in the second part of the instruction designate an address of a memory word in which the address of the operand is found. One bit of the instruction code can be used to distinguish between a direct and an indirect address.

It is sometimes convenient to use the address bits of an instruction code not as an address but as the actual operand. When the second part of an instruction code specifies an operand, the instruction is said to have an immediate operand. When the second part specifies the address of an operand, the instruction is said to have a direct address. This is in contrast to a third possibility called indirect address, where the bits in the second part of the instruction designate an address of a memory word in which the address of the operand is found. One bit of the instruction code can be used to distinguish between a direct and an indirect address.

As an illustration of this configuration, consider the instruction code format shown in Fig. 5-2(a). It consists of a 3-bit operation code, a 12-bit address, and an indirect address mode bit designated by I. The mode bit is 0 for a direct address and 1 for an indirect address. A direct address instruction is shown in Fig. 5-2(b). It is placed in address 22 in memory. The I bit is 0, so the instruction is recognized as a direct address instruction. The opcode specifies an ADD instruction, and the address part is the binary equivalent of 457. The control finds the operand in memory at address 457 and adds it to the content of AC. The instruction in address 35 shown in Fig. 5-2( c) has a mode bit I = 1. Therefore, it is recognized as an indirect address instruction. The address part is the binary equivalent of 300. The control goes to address 300 to find the address of the operand. The address of the operand in this case is 1350. The operand found in address 1350 is then added to the content of AC. The indirect address instruction needs two references to memory to fetch an operand. The first reference is needed to read the address of the operand; the second is for the operand itself. We define the effective address to be the address of the operand in a computation-type instruction or the target address in a branch-type instruction. Thus the effective address in the instruction of Fig. 5-2(b) is 457 and in the instruction of Fig 5-2( c) is 1350.

Indirect Address

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The direct and indirect addressing modes are used in the computer presented in this chapter. The memory word that holds the address of the operand in an indirect address instruction is used as a pointer to an array of data. The pointer could be placed in a processor register instead of memory as done in commercial computers.

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Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: In this chapter we introduce a basic computer and show how its operation can be puter specified with register is defined by its internal transfer registers, statements. the limirlg The otganization and control of structure, the comand the set of instructions that It uses. The design of the computer is then carried out in detall. Although the basic computer presented in this chapter is very small compared to commercial computers, It has the advantage of being simple enough so we can demonstrate the design process without too many complications. view more..
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Ans: The simplest way to organize a computer is to have one processor register and an instruction code format with two parts. The first part specifies the operation to be performed and the second specifies an address. The memory address tells the control where to find an operand in memory. This operand is read from memory and used as the data to be operated on together with the data stored in the processor register view more..
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Ans: An instruction code is a group of bits that instruct the computer to perform a specific operation. It is usually divided into parts, each having its own particular interpretation. The most basic part of an instruction code is its operation part. The operation code of an instruction is a group of bits that define such operations as add, view more..
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Ans: It is sometimes convenient to use the address bits of an instruction code not as an address but as the actual operand. When the second part of an instruction code specifies an operand, the instruction is said to have an immediate operand. view more..
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Ans: Computer instructions are normally stored in consecutive memory locations and are executed sequentially one at a time. The control reads an instruction from a specific address in memory and executes it. It then continues by reading the next instruction in sequence and executes it, and so on. view more..
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Ans: The memory address register (AR) has 12 bits since this is the width of a memory address. The program counter (PC) also has 12 bits and it holds the address of the next instruction to be read from memory after the current instruction is executed. The PC goes through a counting sequence and causes the computer to read sequential instructions previously stored in memory. Instruction words are read and executed in sequence unless a branch instruction is encountered. view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has eight registers, a memory unit, and a control unit. Paths must be provided to transfer information from one register to another and between memory and registers. view more..
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Ans: The input data and output data of the memory are connected to the common bus, but the memory address is connected to AR. Therefore, AR must always be used to specify a memory address. By using a single register for the address, we eliminate the need for an address bus that would have been needed otherwise. The content of any register can be specified for the memory data input during a write operation. Similarly, any register can receive the data from memory after a read operation except AC . view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has three instruction code formats, as shown in Fig. 5-5. Each format has 16 bits. The operation code (opcode) part of the instruction contains three bits and the meaning of the remaining 13 bits depends on the operation code encountered. view more..
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Ans: Before investigating the operations performed by the instructions, let us discuss the type of instructions that must be included in a computer. A computer should have a set of instructions so that the user can construct machine language programs to evaluate any function that is known to be computable. The set of instructions are said to be complete if the computer includes a sufficient number of instructions in each of the following categories: view more..
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Ans: The timing for all registers in the basic computer is controlled by a master clock generator. The clock pulses are applied to all flip-flops and registers in the system, including the flip-flops and registers in the control unit. The clock pulses do not change the state of a register unless the register is enabled by view more..
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Ans: The last three waveforms in Fig. 5-7 show how SC is cleared when D3T4 = I. Output D3 from the operation decoder becomes active at the end of timing signal T2• When timing signal T4 becomes active, the output of the AND gate that implements the control function D3T4 becomes active. This signal is applied to the CLR input of SC. view more..
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Ans: A program residing in the memory unit of the computer consists of a sequence of instructions. The program is executed in the computer by going through a cycle for each instruction. Each instruction cycle in turn is subdivided into a sequence of subcycles or phases. In the basic computer each instruction cycle consists of the following phases: view more..
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Ans: Initially, the program counter PC is loaded with the address of the first instruction in the program. The sequence counter SC is cleared to 0, providing a decoded timing signal To. After each clock pulse, SC is incremented by one, so that the timing signals go through a sequence T0, T1, T2, and so on. The rnicrooperations for the fetch and decode phases can be specified by the following register transfer statements. view more..
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Ans: The timing signal that is active after the decoding is T3• During time T,, the control unit determines the type of instruction that was just read from memory. The flowchart of Fig. 5-9 presents an initial configuration for the instruction cycle and shows how the control determines the instruction type after the decoding. The three possible instruction types available in the basic computer are specified in Fig. 5-5. view more..
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Ans: Register-reference instructions are recognized by the control when 07 = 1 and I = 0. These instructions use bits 0 through 11 of the instruction code to specify one of 12 instructions. These 12 bits are available in IR(0-11). They were also transferred to AR during time T2• view more..
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Ans: In order to specify the rnicrooperations needed for the execution of each instruction, it is necessary that the function that they are intended to perform be defined precisely. Looking back to Table 5-2, where the instructions are listed, we find that some instructions have an ambiguous description. This is because the explanation of an instruction in words is usually lengthy, and not enough space is available in the table for such a lengthy explanation. We will now show that the function of the memory-reference instructions can be defined precisely by means of register transfer notation. view more..
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Ans: This is an instruction that performs the AND logic operation on pairs of bits in AC and the memory word specified by the effective address. The result of view more..




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