ISZ: Increment and Skip if Zero & Control Flowchart
This instruction increments the word specified by the effective address, and if the incremented value is equal to 0, PC is incremented by 1. The programmer usually stores a negative number (in 2's complement) in the memory word. As this negative number is repeatedly incremented by one, it eventually reaches the value of zero. At that time PC is incremented by one in order to skip the next instruction in the program.
Since it is not possible to increment a word inside the memory, it is necessary to read the word into DR, increment DR, and store the word back into memory. This is done with the following sequence of microoperations:
D6T4: DR <-- M [AR]
D6T5: DR <-- DR + 1
D,T,: M[AR] <-- DR, if (DR = 0) then (PC <-- PC + 1), SC <-- 0
A flowchart showing all microoperations for the execution of the seven memory-reference instructions is shown in Fig. 5-11. The control functions are indicated on top of each box. The microoperations that are performed during time T4, T5, or T, depend on the operation code value. This is indicated in the flowchart by six different paths, one of which the control takes after the instruction is decoded. The sequence counter SC is cleared to 0 with the last timing signal in each case. This causes a transfer of control to timing signal T0 to start the next instruction cycle.
Note that we need only seven timing signals to execute the longest instruction (ISZ). The computer can be designed with a 3-bit sequence counter. The reason for using a 4-bit counter for SC is to provide additional timing signals for other instructions that are presented in the problems section.
Frequently Asked Questions
- DATA TYPES
- NUMBER SYSTEM
- CONVERSION - INTRODUCTION
- OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBER CONVERSION
- OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBER CONVERSION -2
- Introduction to Decimal Representation
- ALPHANUMERIC REPRESENTATION
- Complements -2
- Subtraction of Unsigned Numbers
- Subtraction of Unsigned Numbers-2
- Fixed-Point Representation
- Integer Representation
- Arithmetic Addition
- ARITHMETIC SUBTRACTION