# Python Numbers

Number data types store numeric values. They are immutable data types, means that changing the value of a number data type results in a newly allocated object.

Number objects are created when you assign a value to them. For example −

```var1 = 1
var2 = 10
```

You can also delete the reference to a number object by using the del statement. The syntax of the del statement is −

```del var1[,var2[,var3[....,varN]]]]
```

You can delete a single object or multiple objects by using the del statement. For example −

```del var
del var_a, var_b
```

Python supports four different numerical types −

• int (signed integers) − They are often called just integers or ints, are positive or negative whole numbers with no decimal point.

• long (long integers ) − Also called longs, they are integers of unlimited size, written like integers and followed by an uppercase or lowercase L.

• float (floating point real values) − Also called floats, they represent real numbers and are written with a decimal point dividing the integer and fractional parts. Floats may also be in scientific notation, with E or e indicating the power of 10 (2.5e2 = 2.5 x 102 = 250).

• complex (complex numbers) − are of the form a + bJ, where a and b are floats and J (or j) represents the square root of -1 (which is an imaginary number). The real part of the number is a, and the imaginary part is b. Complex numbers are not used much in Python programming.

### Examples

Here are some examples of numbers

int long float complex
10 51924361L 0.0 3.14j
100 -0x19323L 15.20 45.j
-786 0122L -21.9 9.322e-36j
080 0xDEFABCECBDAECBFBAEL 32.3+e18 .876j
-0490 535633629843L -90. -.6545+0J
-0x260 -052318172735L -32.54e100 3e+26J
0x69 -4721885298529L 70.2-E12 4.53e-7j
• Python allows you to use a lowercase L with long, but it is recommended that you use only an uppercase L to avoid confusion with the number 1. Python displays long integers with an uppercase L.

• A complex number consists of an ordered pair of real floating point numbers denoted by a + bj, where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number.

## Number Type Conversion

Python converts numbers internally in an expression containing mixed types to a common type for evaluation. But sometimes, you need to coerce a number explicitly from one type to another to satisfy the requirements of an operator or function parameter.

• Type int(x) to convert x to a plain integer.

• Type long(x) to convert x to a long integer.

• Type float(x) to convert x to a floating-point number.

• Type complex(x) to convert x to a complex number with real part x and imaginary part zero.

• Type complex(x, y) to convert x and y to a complex number with real part x and imaginary part y. x and y are numeric expressions

## Mathematical Functions

Python includes following functions that perform mathematical calculations.

Sr.No. Function & Returns ( description )
1 abs(x)

The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero.

2 ceil(x)

The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x

3 cmp(x, y)

-1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y

4 exp(x)

The exponential of x: ex

5 fabs(x)

The absolute value of x.

6 floor(x)

The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x

7 log(x)

The natural logarithm of x, for x> 0

8 log10(x)

The base-10 logarithm of x for x> 0.

9 max(x1, x2,...)

The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity

10 min(x1, x2,...)

The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity

11 modf(x)

The fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float.

12 pow(x, y)

The value of x**y.

13 round(x [,n])

x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0.

14 sqrt(x)

The square root of x for x > 0

## Random Number Functions

Random numbers are used for games, simulations, testing, security, and privacy applications. Python includes following functions that are commonly used.

Sr.No. Function & Description
1 choice(seq)

A random item from a list, tuple, or string.

2 randrange ([start,] stop [,step])

A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step)

3 random()

A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1

4 seed([x])

Sets the integer starting value used in generating random numbers. Call this function before calling any other random module function. Returns None.

5 shuffle(lst)

Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None.

6 uniform(x, y)

A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y

## Trigonometric Functions

Python includes following functions that perform trigonometric calculations.

Sr.No. Function & Description
1 acos(x)

Return the arc cosine of x, in radians.

2 asin(x)

Return the arc sine of x, in radians.

3 atan(x)

Return the arc tangent of x, in radians.

4 atan2(y, x)

Return atan(y / x), in radians.

5 cos(x)

Return the cosine of x radians.

6 hypot(x, y)

Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y).

7 sin(x)

Return the sine of x radians.

8 tan(x)

Return the tangent of x radians.

9 degrees(x)

Converts angle x from radians to degrees.

Converts angle x from degrees to radians.

## Mathematical Constants

The module also defines two mathematical constants −

Sr.No. Constants & Description
1

pi

The mathematical constant pi.

2

e

The mathematical constant e.

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