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Frequently Asked Questions
Ans: Why is carbon unique? What accounts for the apparently limitless number of carbon compounds that can be prepared? The answer is that bonds between carbon atoms are stable, allowing chains of carbon atoms to be formed, with each carbon atom of a chain being capable of joining to other atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and the halogens. view more..
Ans: Lithium and beryllium are able to form positive ions by loss of one or two electrons, respectively. Boron is in an intermediate position and its somewhat unusual bonding properties are considered later in the book (Section 19.5). view more..
Ans: Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. We shall consider in this chapter the four simplest known hydrocarbonsthose with the lowest molecular weights-and we shall see that they represent three classes of compounds: the alkanes, in which each carbon atom has four single bonds; the alkenes, in which two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond (two electron pairs); and the alkynes, in which two carbon atoms are joined by a triple bond (three electron pairs). view more..
Ans: In organic chemistry, the word structure has a specific meaning; It designates the order in which the atoms are joined to each other. A structure does not necessarily specify the exact shape of a molecule because rotation about single bonds could lead, even for a molecule as simple as ethane, to an infinite number of different arrangements of the atoms in space. view more..
Ans: The two simplest unsaturated compounds (those containing a multiple bond) are ethene (CH,=CH,) and ethyne (HCzCH). The generally lower stability of multiply bonded compounds arises from the restriction that only one electron pair can occupy a given orbital view more..
Ans: In the previous two chapters we have studied in some detail the properties of the two simplest saturated hydrocarbons, methane and ethane, and have shown how their simple derivatives are named using the rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC rules). view more..
Ans: The series of continuous-chain alkanes, CH,(CH,),-,CH, , shows a remarkably smooth gradation of physical properties (see Table 3.3 and Figure 3-2). As you go up the series, each additional CH, group contributes a fairly constant increment to the boiling point and density and, to a lesser extent, to the melting point. view more..
Ans: As a class, alkanes are singularly unreactive. The name saturated hydrocarbon (or " paraffin," which literally means " little affinity " [L. par(um), little, + afins, affinity1)arises because their chemical affinity for most common reagents may be regarded as saturated or satisfied. view more..
Ans: An important and interesting group of hydrocarbons, known as cycloalkanes, contain rings of carbon atoms linked together by single bonds. The simple unsubstituted cycloalkanes of the formula (CH,), make up a particularly important homologous series in which the chemical properties change in a much more striking way than do the properties of the open-chain hydrocarbons, CH3(CH2),-,CH3. view more..
Ans: In the early days of organic chemistry, when it was found that the alkenes, but not the alkanes, readily undergo addition reactions with substances such as halogens, hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid, and oxidizing agents, the chemical affinity of alkanes was said to be " saturated" while that of the alkenes was said to be " unsaturated." Now, even though we recognize that no chemical entity (even the noble gases such as helium and xenon) can surely be classified as saturated, the description of alkanes and alkenes as saturated and unsaturated is still commonly used. view more..
Ans: In the homologous series of alkanes, isomerism first appears at the C, level, two compounds of formula C4H,, being known. These are structural isomers: view more..
Ans: By convention, the configuration of complex alkenes is taken to correspond to the configuration of the longest continuous chain as it passes through the double bond. Thus the following compound is 4-ethyl-3-methyl-trans-3- heptene, despite the fact that two identical groups are cis with respect to each view more..
Ans: We have previously examined briefly two addition reactions of ethene, the first member of the homologous series of alkenes. These were addition of hydrogen, catalyzed by surfaces of finely divided metals such as nickel, and the addition of bromine. view more..
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- bonding in organic compounds
- methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen juoride
- The C1, and C2, hydrocarbons
- rotational conformations of ethane
- addition reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons
- physical properties of alkanes-concept of homology
- alkanes and their chemical reactions
- isomerism in C2H4compounds
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