Software measuring process and product attributes

Classifying Software Measures In software

There are three such classes:

  1. Process are collection of software related activities.
  2. Products are any artifacts, deliverables or documents that result from a process activity.
  3. Resources are entities required by a process activity.

Within each class of entity, we distinguish between internal and external attributes

  • Internal attributes: can be measured by examining the product, process or resources on its own, separate from its behavior. For. Eg. Size, Structure, Complexity etc.
  • External attributes: Here the behavior of the process, product or resource is important rather than the entity itself.
  • For Eg. Quality, Productivity, Reliability, Usability etc. 


  1. We want to know how long it takes for a process to complete, cost, effective or efficient and compare with other processes.
  2. These measure include
  • The duration, effort associated and no. of incidents of a specified type arising during the process or one of its activities.
  1. Cost is not the only process measure we can examine. Controllability, observability and stability are also important in managing large project. 


  1. External product attributes: Since an external product attribute depends on both product behavior and environment, each attribute measure should take these characteristics into account. Usability, integrity, efficiency, testability, reusability, portability and interoperability are other external attributes that we can measure.
  2. Internal product attributes: Internal product attributes are sometimes easy to measure. Eg: Determine size of product by measuring the number of pages. other internal product difficult to measure, because opinions differ
  3. The importance of internal attributes: good internal structure leads to good external quality
  4. Internal attributes and quality control and assurance: A major reason that developers want to use internal attributes to predict external ones is the need to monitor and control the products during development.
  5. Validating composite measures “Quality” is frequently used by software engineers to describe an internal attribute of design or code. However, “quality” is multidimensional; it does not reflect a single aspect of particular product. For eg: economists want to control the economy and make a country more productive. 


We measure resources to determine their magnitude, their cost and their quality. Poor quality software, too few people or people with wrong skills. Cost is often measure all types of resources, so that managers can see how the cost of the inputs affects the cost of outputs– Eg. Large investment in CASE tools yielding benefits in terms of more productive staff. Productivity is always important, and managers are enthusiastic not only to measure it but also to understand how to improve it. Business or markets are judged by comparing what goes in with what comes out. There are many other staff attributes that we can measure, whose values may have an influence on the process or product. We can also classify and analyze tools and methods. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Ans: Quantitative measure of degree to which a system, component or process possesses a given attribute For ex. No. of errors found per person hours expended Cost and Effort Estimation : Boehm’s COCOMO model, Putnam’s SLIM Model & Albrecht’s function model. view more..
Ans: Costs fall into two categories. There are cost associated with developing the systems and there are costs associated with a operating a system. view more..
Ans: System selection means selecting the various hardware, software, and services that are needed for implanting the system. Before the system selection can be done, it is necessary to know the capabilities of required proposed system view more..
Ans: There are three such classes: Process are collection of software related activities. Products are any artifacts, deliverables or documents that result from a process activity view more..
Ans: A direct measure is obtained by applying measurement rules directly to the phenomenon of interest.For example, by using the specified counting rules, a software program’s “Line of Code” can be measured directly. and sofware reliabity is .... view more..
Ans: What Is Information Systems Analysis and Design? Information systems analysis and design is a method used by companies ranging from IBM to PepsiCo to Sony to create and maintain information systems that perform basic business functions such as keeping track of customer names and addresses, processing orders, and paying employees. The main goal of systems analysis and design is to improve organizational systems, typically through applying software that can help employees accomplish key business tasks more easily and efficiently. As a systems analyst, you will be at the center of developing this software. view more..
Ans: concurrency of components, lack of a global clock and independent failures of components and the ability to work well when the load or the number of users increases – failure handling, concurrency of components, transparency and providing quality of service view more..
Ans: the wide range of applications in use today, from relatively localized systems (as found, for example, in a car or aircraft) to globalscale systems involving millions of nodes, from data-centric services to processorintensive tasks, from systems built from very small and relatively primitive sensors to those incorporating powerful computational elements, from embedded systems to ones that support a sophisticated interactive user experience, and so on. view more..
Ans: The task of a web search engine is to index the entire contents of the World Wide Web, encompassing a wide range of information styles including web pages, multimedia sources and (scanned) books view more..
Ans: The growth of the World Wide Web as a repository of information and knowledge; the development of web search engines such as Google and Yahoo to search this vast repository view more..
Ans: The engineering of MMOGs represents a major challenge for distributed systems technologies, particularly because of the need for fast response times to preserve the user experience of the game. view more..
Ans: a very different style of underlying architecture from the styles mentioned above (for example client-server), and such systems typically employ what is known as distributed event-based systems. view more..
Ans: the emergence of ubiquitous computing coupled with the desire to support user mobility in distributed systems view more..
Ans: The Internet is also a very large distributed system. It enables users, wherever they are, to make use of services such as the World Wide Web, email and file transfer. (Indeed, the Web is sometimes incorrectly equated with the Internet.) view more..
Ans: Technological advances in device miniaturization and wireless networking have led increasingly to the integration of small and portable computing devices into distributed systems. view more..
Ans: The crucial characteristic of continuous media types is that they include a temporal dimension, and indeed, the integrity of the media type is fundamentally dependent on preserving real-time relationships between elements of a media type. view more..
Ans: hysical resources such as storage and processing can be made available to networked computers, removing the need to own such resources on their own. At one end of the spectrum, a user may opt for a remote storage facility for file storage requirements view more..
Ans: In practice, patterns of resource sharing vary widely in their scope and in how closely users work together. At one extreme, a search engine on the Web provides a facility to users throughout the world, users who need never come into contact with one another directly. At the other extreme, in computer-supported cooperative working (CSCW), a group of users who cooperate directly share resources such as documents in a small, closed group. view more..

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