The traditional telephone system, even if it someday gets multigigabit end-toend fiber, will still not be able to satisfy a growing group of users: people on the go. People now expect to make phone calls and to use their phones to check


email and surf the Web from airplanes, cars, swimming pools, and while jogging in the park. Consequently, there is a tremendous amount of interest in wireless telephony. In the following sections we will study this topic in some detail. The mobile phone system is used for wide area voice and data communication. Mobile phones (sometimes called cell phones) have gone through three distinct generations, widely called 1G, 2G, and 3G. The generations are:

1. Analog voice.

2. Digital voice.

3. Digital voice and data (Internet, email, etc.).

(Mobile phones should not be confused with cordless phones that consist of a base station and a handset sold as a set for use within the home. These are never used for networking, so we will not examine them further.)

Although most of our discussion will be about the technology of these systems, it is interesting to note how political and tiny marketing decisions can have a huge impact. The first mobile system was devised in the U.S. by AT&T and mandated for the whole country by the FCC. As a result, the entire U.S. had a single (analog) system and a mobile phone purchased in California also worked in New York. In contrast, when mobile phones came to Europe, every country devised its own system, which resulted in a fiasco.

Europe learned from its mistake and when digital came around, the government-run PTTs got together and standardized on a single system (GSM), so any European mobile phone will work anywhere in Europe. By then, the U.S. had decided that government should not be in the standardization business, so it left digital to the marketplace. This decision resulted in different equipment manufacturers producing different kinds of mobile phones. As a consequence, in the U.S.two major—and completely incompatible—digital mobile phone systems were deployed, as well as other minor systems.

Despite an initial lead by the U.S., mobile phone ownership and usage in Europe is now far greater than in the U.S. Having a single system that works anywhere in Europe and with any provider is part of the reason, but there is more. A second area where the U.S. and Europe differed is in the humble matter of phone numbers. In the U.S., mobile phones are mixed in with regular (fixed) telephones. Thus, there is no way for a caller to see if, say, (212) 234-5678 is a fixed telephone (cheap or free call) or a mobile phone (expensive call). To keep people from getting nervous about placing calls, the telephone companies decided to make the mobile phone owner pay for incoming calls. As a consequence, many people hesitated buying a mobile phone for fear of running up a big bill by just receiving calls. In Europe, mobile phone numbers have a special area code (analogous to 800 and 900 numbers) so they are instantly recognizable. Consequently, the usual rule of ‘‘caller pays’’ also applies to mobile phones in Europe (except for international calls, where costs are split).

A third issue that has had a large impact on adoption is the widespread use of prepaid mobile phones in Europe (up to 75% in some areas). These can be purchased in many stores with no more formality than buying a digital camera. You pay and you go. They are preloaded with a balance of, for example, 20 or 50 euros and can be recharged (using a secret PIN code) when the balance drops to zero. As a consequence, practically every teenager and many small children in Europe have (usually prepaid) mobile phones so their parents can locate them, without the danger of the child running up a huge bill. If the mobile phone is used only occasionally, its use is essentially free since there is no monthly charge or charge for incoming calls.

First-Generation (1G) Mobile Phones: Analog Voice

Enough about the politics and marketing aspects of mobile phones. Now let us look at the technology, starting with the earliest system. Mobile radiotelephones were used sporadically for maritime and military communication during the early decades of the 20th century. In 1946, the first system for car-based telephones was set up in St. Louis. This system used a single large transmitter on top of a tall building and had a single channel, used for both sending and receiving. To talk, the user had to push a button that enabled the transmitter and disabled the receiver. Such systems, known as push-to-talk systems, were installed in several cities beginning in the late 1950s. CB radio, taxis, and police cars often use this technology.

In the 1960s, IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone System) was installed. It, too, used a high-powered (200-watt) transmitter on top of a hill but it had two frequencies, one for sending and one for receiving, so the push-to-talk button was no longer needed. Since all communication from the mobile telephones went inbound on a different channel than the outbound signals, the mobile users could not hear each other (unlike the push-to-talk system used in taxis)

IMTS supported 23 channels spread out from 150 MHz to 450 MHz. Due to the small number of channels, users often had to wait a long time before getting a dial tone. Also, due to the large power of the hilltop transmitters, adjacent systems had to be several hundred kilometers apart to avoid interference. All in all, the limited capacity made the system impractical.

Advanced Mobile Phone System

All that changed with AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System), invented by Bell Labs and first installed in the United States in 1982. It was also used in England, where it was called TACS, and in Japan, where it was called MCS-L1. AMPS was formally retired in 2008, but we will look at it to understand the context for the 2G and 3G systems that improved on it.

In all mobile phone systems, a geographic region is divided up into cells, which is why the devices are sometimes called cell phones. In AMPS, the cells are typically 10 to 20 km across; in digital systems, the cells are smaller. Each cell uses some set of frequencies not used by any of its neighbors. The key idea that gives cellular systems far more capacity than previous systems is the use of relatively small cells and the reuse of transmission frequencies in nearby (but not adjacent) cells. Whereas an IMTS system 100 km across can have only one call on each frequency, an AMPS system might have 100 10-km cells in the same area and be able to have 10 to 15 calls on each frequency, in widely separated cells. Thus, the cellular design increases the system capacity by at least an order of magnitude, more as the cells get smaller. Furthermore, smaller cells mean that less power is needed, which leads to smaller and cheaper transmitters and handsets.

The idea of frequency reuse is illustrated in Fig. 2-45(a). The cells are normally roughly circular, but they are easier to model as hexagons. In Fig. 2-45(a), the cells are all the same size. They are grouped in units of seven cells. Each letter indicates a group of frequencies. Notice that for each frequency set, there is a buffer about two cells wide where that frequency is not reused, providing for good separation and low interference.

Finding locations high in the air to place base station antennas is a major issue. This problem has led some telecommunication carriers to forge alliances with the Roman Catholic Church, since the latter owns a substantial number of exalted potential antenna sites worldwide, all conveniently under a single management.

In an area where the number of users has grown to the point that the system is overloaded, the power can be reduced and the overloaded cells split into smaller


 microcells to permit more frequency reuse, as shown in Fig. 2-45(b). Telephone companies sometimes create temporary microcells, using portable towers with satellite links at sporting events, rock concerts, and other places where large numbers of mobile users congregate for a few hours.

At the center of each cell is a base station to which all the telephones in the cell transmit. The base station consists of a computer and transmitter/receiver connected to an antenna. In a small system, all the base stations are connected to a single device called an MSC (Mobile Switching Center) or MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). In a larger one, several MSCs may be needed, all of which are connected to a second-level MSC, and so on. The MSCs are essentially end offices as in the telephone system, and are in fact connected to at least one telephone system end office. The MSCs communicate with the base stations, each other, and the PSTN using a packet-switching network.

At any instant, each mobile telephone is logically in one specific cell and under the control of that cell’s base station. When a mobile telephone physically leaves a cell, its base station notices the telephone’s signal fading away and asks all the surrounding base stations how much power they are getting from it. When the answers come back, the base station then transfers ownership to the cell getting the strongest signal; under most conditions that is the cell where the telephone is now located. The telephone is then informed of its new boss, and if a call is in progress, it is asked to switch to a new channel (because the old one is not reused in any of the adjacent cells). This process, called handoff, takes about 300 msec. Channel assignment is done by the MSC, the nerve center of the system. The base stations are really just dumb radio relays.


AMPS uses FDM to separate the channels. The system uses 832 full-duplex channels, each consisting of a pair of simplex channels. This arrangement is known as FDD (Frequency Division Duplex). The 832 simplex channels from 824 to 849 MHz are used for mobile to base station transmission, and 832 simplex channels from 869 to 894 MHz are used for base station to mobile transmission. Each of these simplex channels is 30 kHz wide.

The 832 channels are divided into four categories. Control channels (base to mobile) are used to manage the system. Paging channels (base to mobile) alert mobile users to calls for them. Access channels (bidirectional) are used for call setup and channel assignment. Finally, data channels (bidirectional) carry voice, fax, or data. Since the same frequencies cannot be reused in nearby cells and 21 channels are reserved in each cell for control, the actual number of voice channels available per cell is much smaller than 832, typically about 45.

Call Management

Each mobile telephone in AMPS has a 32-bit serial number and a 10-digit telephone number in its programmable read-only memory. The telephone number is represented as a 3-digit area code in 10 bits and a 7-digit subscriber number in 24 bits. When a phone is switched on, it scans a preprogrammed list of 21 control channels to find the most powerful signal. The phone then broadcasts its 32-bit serial number and 34-bit telephone number. Like all the control information in AMPS, this packet is sent in digital form, multiple times, and with an error-correcting code, even though the voice channels themselves are analog.

When the base station hears the announcement, it tells the MSC, which records the existence of its new customer and also informs the customer’s home MSC of his current location. During normal operation, the mobile telephone reregisters about once every 15 minutes.

To make a call, a mobile user switches on the phone, enters the number to be called on the keypad, and hits the SEND button. The phone then transmits the number to be called and its own identity on the access channel. If a collision occurs there, it tries again later. When the base station gets the request, it informs the MSC. If the caller is a customer of the MSC’s company (or one of its partners), the MSC looks for an idle channel for the call. If one is found, the channel number is sent back on the control channel. The mobile phone then automatically switches to the selected voice channel and waits until the called party picks up the phone.

Incoming calls work differently. To start with, all idle phones continuously listen to the paging channel to detect messages directed at them. When a call is placed to a mobile phone (either from a fixed phone or another mobile phone), a packet is sent to the callee’s home MSC to find out where it is. A packet is then sent to the base station in its current cell, which sends a broadcast on the paging channel of the form ‘‘Unit 14, are you there?’’ The called phone responds with a ‘‘Yes’’ on the access channel. The base then says something like: ‘‘Unit 14, call for you on channel 3.’’ At this point, the called phone switches to channel 3 and starts making ringing sounds (or playing some melody the owner was given as a birthday present).

Second-Generation (2G) Mobile Phones: Digital Voice

The first generation of mobile phones was analog; the second generation is digital. Switching to digital has several advantages. It provides capacity gains by allowing voice signals to be digitized and compressed. It improves security by allowing voice and control signals to be encrypted. This in turn deters fraud and eavesdropping, whether from intentional scanning or echoes of other calls due to RF propagation. Finally, it enables new services such as text messaging.

Just as there was no worldwide standardization during the first generation, there was also no worldwide standardization during the second, either. Several different systems were developed, and three have been widely deployed. DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) is a digital version of AMPS that coexists with AMPS and uses TDM to place multiple calls on the same frequency channel. It is described in International Standard IS-54 and its successor IS-136. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) has emerged as the dominant system, and while it was slow to catch on in the U.S. it is now used virtually everywhere in the world. Like D-AMPS, GSM is based on a mix of FDM and TDM. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), described in International Standard IS-95, is a completely different kind of system and is based on neither FDM mor TDM. While CDMA has not become the dominant 2G system, its technology has become the basis for 3G systems.

Also, the name PCS (Personal Communications Services) is sometimes used in the marketing literature to indicate a second-generation (i.e., digital) system. Originally it meant a mobile phone using the 1900 MHz band, but that distinction is rarely made now.

We will now describe GSM, since it is the dominant 2G system. In the next section we will have more to say about CDMA when we describe 3G systems.

GSM—The Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM started life in the 1980s as an effort to produce a single European 2G standard. The task was assigned to a telecommunications group called (in French) Groupe Speciale´ Mobile. The first GSM systems were deployed starting in 1991 and were a quick success. It soon became clear that GSM was going to be more than a European success, with uptake stretching to countries as far away as Australia, so GSM was renamed to have a more worldwide appeal.

GSM and the other mobile phone systems we will study retain from 1G systems a design based on cells, frequency reuse across cells, and mobility with handoffs as subscribers move. It is the details that differ. Here, we will briefly discuss some of the main properties of GSM. However, the printed GSM standard is over 5000 [sic] pages long. A large fraction of this material relates to engineering aspects of the system, especially the design of receivers to handle multipath signal propagation, and synchronizing transmitters and receivers. None of this will be even mentioned here.

Fig. 2-46 shows that the GSM architecture is similar to the AMPS architecture, though the components have different names. The mobile itself is now divided into the handset and a removable chip with subscriber and account information called a SIM card, short for Subscriber Identity Module. It is the SIM card that activates the handset and contains secrets that let the mobile and the network identify each other and encrypt conversations. A SIM card can be removed and plugged into a different handset to turn that handset into your mobile as far as the network is concerned


The mobile talks to cell base stations over an air interface that we will describe in a moment. The cell base stations are each connected to a BSC (Base Station Controller) that controls the radio resources of cells and handles handoff. The BSC in turn is connected to an MSC (as in AMPS) that routes calls and connects to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).

To be able to route calls, the MSC needs to know where mobiles can currently be found. It maintains a database of nearby mobiles that are associated with the cells it manages. This database is called the VLR (Visitor Location Register). There is also a database in the mobile network that gives the last known location of each mobile. It is called the HLR (Home Location Register). This database is used to route incoming calls to the right locations. Both databases must be kept up to date as mobiles move from cell to cell.

We will now describe the air interface in some detail. GSM runs on a range of frequencies worldwide, including 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz. More spectrum is allocated than for AMPS in order to support a much larger number of users. GSM

is a frequency division duplex cellular system, like AMPS. That is, each mobile transmits on one frequency and receives on another, higher frequency (55 MHz higher for GSM versus 80 MHz higher for AMPS). However, unlike with AMPS, with GSM a single frequency pair is split by time-division multiplexing into time slots. In this way it is shared by multiple mobiles.

To handle multiple mobiles, GSM channels are much wider than the AMPS channels (200-kHz versus 30 kHz). One 200-kHz channel is shown in Fig. 2-47. A GSM system operating in the 900-MHz region has 124 pairs of simplex channels. Each simplex channel is 200 kHz wide and supports eight separate connections on it, using time division multiplexing. Each currently active station is assigned one time slot on one channel pair. Theoretically, 992 channels can be supported in each cell, but many of them are not available, to avoid frequency conflicts with neighboring cells. In Fig. 2-47, the eight shaded time slots all belong to the same connection, four of them in each direction. Transmitting and receiving does not happen in the same time slot because the GSM radios cannot transmit and receive at the same time and it takes time to switch from one to the other. If the mobile device assigned to 890.4/935.4 MHz and time slot 2 wanted to transmit to the base station, it would use the lower four shaded slots (and the ones following them in time), putting some data in each slot until all the data had been sent.


 The TDM slots shown in Fig. 2-47 are part of a complex framing hierarchy. Each TDM slot has a specific structure, and groups of TDM slots form multiframes, also with a specific structure. A simplified version of this hierarchy is shown in Fig. 2-48. Here we can see that each TDM slot consists of a 148-bit data frame that occupies the channel for 577 μsec (including a 30-μsec guard time after each slot). Each data frame starts and ends with three 0 bits, for frame delineation purposes. It also contains two 57-bit Information fields, each one having a control bit that indicates whether the following Information field is for voice or data. Between the Information fields is a 26-bit Sync (training) field that is used by the receiver to synchronize to the sender’s frame boundaries.


A data frame is transmitted in 547 μsec, but a transmitter is only allowed to send one data frame every 4.615 msec, since it is sharing the channel with seven other stations. The gross rate of each channel is 270,833 bps, divided among eight users. However, as with AMPS, the overhead eats up a large fraction of the bandwidth, ultimately leaving 24.7 kbps worth of payload per user before error correction. After error correction, 13 kbps is left for speech. While this is substantially less than 64 kbps PCM for uncompressed voice signals in the fixed telephone network, compression on the mobile device can reach these levels with little loss of quality.

As can be seen from Fig. 2-48, eight data frames make up a TDM frame and 26 TDM frames make up a 120-msec multiframe. Of the 26 TDM frames in a multiframe, slot 12 is used for control and slot 25 is reserved for future use, so only 24 are available for user traffic.

However, in addition to the 26-slot multiframe shown in Fig. 2-48, a 51-slot multiframe (not shown) is also used. Some of these slots are used to hold several control channels used to manage the system. The broadcast control channel is a continuous stream of output from the base station containing the base station’s identity and the channel status. All mobile stations monitor their signal strength to see when they have moved into a new cell.

The dedicated control channel is used for location updating, registration, and call setup. In particular, each BSC maintains a database of mobile stations currently under its jurisdiction, the VLR. Information needed to maintain the VLR is sent on the dedicated control channel. 

Finally, there is the common control channel, which is split up into three logical subchannels. The first of these subchannels is the paging channel, which the base station uses to announce incoming calls. Each mobile station monitors it continuously to watch for calls it should answer. The second is the random access channel, which allows users to request a slot on the dedicated control channel. If two requests collide, they are garbled and have to be retried later. Using the dedicated control channel slot, the station can set up a call. The assigned slot is announced on the third subchannel, the access grant channel.

Finally, GSM differs from AMPS in how handoff is handled. In AMPS, the MSC manages it completely without help from the mobile devices. With time slots in GSM, the mobile is neither sending nor receiving most of the time. The idle slots are an opportunity for the mobile to measure signal quality to other nearby base stations. It does so and sends this information to the BSC. The BSC can use it to determine when a mobile is leaving one cell and entering another so it can perform the handoff. This design is called MAHO (Mobile Assisted HandOff).

Third-Generation (3G) Mobile Phones: Digital Voice and Data

The first generation of mobile phones was analog voice, and the second generation was digital voice. The third generation of mobile phones, or 3G as it is called, is all about digital voice and data.

A number of factors are driving the industry. First, data traffic already exceeds voice traffic on the fixed network and is growing exponentially, whereas voice traffic is essentially flat. Many industry experts expect data traffic to dominate voice on mobile devices as well soon. Second, the telephone, entertainment, and computer industries have all gone digital and are rapidly converging. Many people are drooling over lightweight, portable devices that act as a telephone, music and video player, email terminal, Web interface, gaming machine, and more, all with worldwide wireless connectivity to the Internet at high bandwidth.

Apple’s iPhone is a good example of this kind of 3G device. With it, people get hooked on wireless data services, and AT&T wireless data volumes are rising steeply with the popularity of iPhones. The trouble is, the iPhone uses a 2.5G network (an enhanced 2G network, but not a true 3G network) and there is not enough data capacity to keep users happy. 3G mobile telephony is all about providing enough wireless bandwidth to keep these future users happy.

ITU tried to get a bit more specific about this vision starting back around 1992. It issued a blueprint for getting there called IMT-2000, where IMT stood for International Mobile Telecommunications. The basic services that the IMT-2000 network was supposed to provide to its users are:

1. High-quality voice transmission.

2. Messaging (replacing email, fax, SMS, chat, etc.).

3. Multimedia (playing music, viewing videos, films, television, etc.).

4. Internet access (Web surfing, including pages with audio and video).

Additional services might be video conferencing, telepresence, group game playing, and m-commerce (waving your telephone at the cashier to pay in a store). Furthermore, all these services are supposed to be available worldwide (with automatic connection via a satellite when no terrestrial network can be located), instantly (always on), and with quality of service guarantees.

ITU envisioned a single worldwide technology for IMT-2000, so manufacturers could build a single device that could be sold and used anywhere in the world (like CD players and computers and unlike mobile phones and televisions). Having a single technology would also make life much simpler for network operators and would encourage more people to use the services. Format wars, such as the Betamax versus VHS battle with videorecorders, are not good for business.

As it turned out, this was a bit optimistic. The number 2000 stood for three things: (1) the year it was supposed to go into service, (2) the frequency it was supposed to operate at (in MHz), and (3) the bandwidth the service should have (in kbps). It did not make it on any of the three counts. Nothing was implemented by 2000. ITU recommended that all governments reserve spectrum at 2 GHz so devices could roam seamlessly from country to country. China reserved the required bandwidth but nobody else did. Finally, it was recognized that 2 Mbps is not currently feasible for users who are too mobile (due to the difficulty of performing handoffs quickly enough). More realistic is 2 Mbps for stationary indoor users (which will compete head-on with ADSL), 384 kbps for people walking, and 144 kbps for connections in cars.

Despite these initial setbacks, much has been accomplished since then. Several IMT proposals were made and, after some winnowing, it came down to two main ones. The first one, WCDMA (Wideband CDMA), was proposed by Ericsson and was pushed by the European Union, which called it UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System). The other contender was CDMA2000, proposed by Qualcomm.

Both of these systems are more similar than different in that they are based on broadband CDMA; WCDMA uses 5-MHz channels and CDMA2000 uses 1.25- MHz channels. If the Ericsson and Qualcomm engineers were put in a room and told to come to a common design, they probably could find one fairly quickly. The trouble is that the real problem is not engineering, but politics (as usual). Europe wanted a system that interworked with GSM, whereas the U.S. wanted a system that was compatible with one already widely deployed in the U.S. (IS-95). Each side also supported its local company (Ericsson is based in Sweden; Qualcomm is in California). Finally, Ericsson and Qualcomm were involved in numerous lawsuits over their respective CDMA patents.

Worldwide, 10–15% of mobile subscribers already use 3G technologies. In North America and Europe, around a third of mobile subscribers are 3G. Japan was an early adopter and now nearly all mobile phones in Japan are 3G. These figures include the deployment of both UMTS and CDMA2000, and 3G continues to be one great cauldron of activity as the market shakes out. To add to the confusion, UMTS became a single 3G standard with multiple incompatible options, including CDMA2000. This change was an effort to unify the various camps, but it just papers over the technical differences and obscures the focus of ongoing efforts. We will use UMTS to mean WCDMA, as distinct from CDMA2000.

We will focus our discussion on the use of CDMA in cellular networks, as it is the distinguishing feature of both systems. CDMA is neither FDM nor TDM but a kind of mix in which each user sends on the same frequency band at the same time. When it was first proposed for cellular systems, the industry gave it approximately the same reaction that Columbus first got from Queen Isabella when he proposed reaching India by sailing in the wrong direction. However, through the persistence of a single company, Qualcomm, CDMA succeeded as a 2G system (IS-95) and matured to the point that it became the technical basis for 3G

To make CDMA work in the mobile phone setting requires more than the basic CDMA technique that we described in the previous section. Specifically, we described synchronous CDMA, in which the chip sequences are exactly orthogonal. This design works when all users are synchronized on the start time of their chip sequences, as in the case of the base station transmitting to mobiles. The base station can transmit the chip sequences starting at the same time so that the signals will be orthogonal and able to be separated. However, it is difficult to synchronize the transmissions of independent mobile phones. Without care, their transmissions would arrive at the base station at different times, with no guarantee of orthogonality. To let mobiles send to the base station without synchronization, we want code sequences that are orthogonal to each other at all possible offsets, not simply when they are aligned at the start.

While it is not possible to find sequences that are exactly orthogonal for this general case, long pseudorandom sequences come close enough. They have the property that, with high probability, they have a low cross-correlation with each other at all offsets. This means that when one sequence is multiplied by another sequence and summed up to compute the inner product, the result will be small; it would be zero if they were orthogonal. (Intuitively, random sequences should always look different from each other. Multiplying them together should then produce a random signal, which will sum to a small result.) This lets a receiver filter unwanted transmissions out of the received signal. Also, the auto-correlation of pseudorandom sequences is also small, with high probability, except at a zero offset. This means that when one sequence is multiplied by a delayed copy of itself and summed, the result will be small, except when the delay is zero. (Intuitively, a delayed random sequence looks like a different random sequence, and we are back to the cross-correlation case.) This lets a receiver lock onto the beginning of the wanted transmission in the received signal.

The use of pseudorandom sequences lets the base station receive CDMA messages from unsynchronized mobiles. However, an implicit assumption in our discussion of CDMA is that the power levels of all mobiles are the same at the receiver. If they are not, a small cross-correlation with a powerful signal might overwhelm a large auto-correlation with a weak signal. Thus, the transmit power on mobiles must be controlled to minimize interference between competing signals. It is this interference that limits the capacity of CDMA systems.

The power levels received at a base station depend on how far away the transmitters are as well as how much power they transmit. There may be many mobile stations at varying distances from the base station. A good heuristic to equalize the received power is for each mobile station to transmit to the base station at the inverse of the power level it receives from the base station. In other words, a mobile station receiving a weak signal from the base station will use more power than one getting a strong signal. For more accuracy, the base station also gives each mobile feedback to increase, decrease, or hold steady its transmit power. The feedback is frequent (1500 times per second) because good power control is important to minimize interference.

Another improvement over the basic CDMA scheme we described earlier is to allow different users to send data at different rates. This trick is accomplished naturally in CDMA by fixing the rate at which chips are transmitted and assigning users chip sequences of different lengths. For example, in WCDMA, the chip rate is 3.84 Mchips/sec and the spreading codes vary from 4 to 256 chips. With a 256- chip code, around 12 kbps is left after error correction, and this capacity is sufficient for a voice call. With a 4-chip code, the user data rate is close to 1 Mbps. Intermediate-length codes give intermediate rates; to get to multiple Mbps, the mobile must use more than one 5-MHz channel at once.

Now let us describe the advantages of CDMA, given that we have dealt with the problems of getting it to work. It has three main advantages. First, CDMA can improve capacity by taking advantage of small periods when some transmitters are silent. In polite voice calls, one party is silent while the other talks. On average, the line is busy only 40% of the time. However, the pauses may be small and are difficult to predict. With TDM or FDM systems, it is not possible to reassign time slots or frequency channels quickly enough to benefit from these small silences. However, in CDMA, by simply not transmitting one user lowers the interference for other users, and it is likely that some fraction of users will not be transmitting in a busy cell at any given time. Thus CDMA takes advantage of expected silences to allow a larger number of simultaneous calls.

Second, with CDMA each cell uses the same frequencies. Unlike GSM and AMPS, FDM is not needed to separate the transmissions of different users. This eliminates complicated frequency planning tasks and improves capacity. It also makes it easy for a base station to use multiple directional antennas, or sectored antennas, instead of an omnidirectional antenna. Directional antennas concentrate a signal in the intended direction and reduce the signal, and hence interference, in other directions. This in turn increases capacity. Three sector designs are common. The base station must track the mobile as it moves from sector to sector. This tracking is easy with CDMA because all frequencies are used in all sectors.

Third, CDMA facilitates soft handoff, in which the mobile is acquired by the new base station before the previous one signs off. In this way there is no loss of continuity. Soft handoff is shown in Fig. 2-49. It is easy with CDMA because all frequencies are used in each cell. The alternative is a hard handoff, in which the old base station drops the call before the new one acquires it. If the new one is unable to acquire it (e.g., because there is no available frequency), the call is disconnected abruptly. Users tend to notice this, but it is inevitable occasionally with the current design. Hard handoff is the norm with FDM designs to avoid the cost of having the mobile transmit or receive on two frequencies simultaneously.



Much has been written about 3G, most of it praising it as the greatest thing since sliced bread. Meanwhile, many operators have taken cautious steps in the direction of 3G by going to what is sometimes called 2.5G, although 2.1G might be more accurate. One such system is EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution), which is just GSM with more bits per symbol. The trouble is, more bits per symbol also means more errors per symbol, so EDGE has nine different schemes for modulation and error correction, differing in terms of how much of the bandwidth is devoted to fixing the errors introduced by the higher speed. EDGE is one step along an evolutionary path that is defined from GSM to WCDMA. Similarly, there is an evolutionary path defined for operators to upgrade from IS-95 to CDMA2000 networks.

Even though 3G networks are not fully deployed yet, some researchers regard 3G as a done deal. These people are already working on 4G systems under the name of LTE (Long Term Evolution). Some of the proposed features of 4G include: high bandwidth; ubiquity (connectivity everywhere); seamless integration with other wired and wireless IP networks, including 802.11 access points; adaptive resource and spectrum management; and high quality of service for multimedia. For more information see Astely et al. (2009) and Larmo et al. (2009).

Meanwhile, wireless networks with 4G levels of performance are already available. The main example is 802.16, also known as WiMAX. For an overview of mobile WiMAX see Ahmadi (2009). To say the industry is in a state of flux is a huge understatement. Check back in a few years to see what has happened.



Frequently Asked Questions

Ans: When two computers owned by the same company or organization and located close to each other need to communicate, it is often easiest just to run a cable between them. LANs work this way. However, when the distances are large or there are many computers or the cables have to pass through a public road or other public right of way, the costs of running private cables are usually prohibitive. view more..
Ans: Now that we have studied the properties of wired and wireless channels, we turn our attention to the problem of sending digital information. Wires and wireless channels carry analog signals such as continuously varying voltage, light intensity, or sound intensity. To send digital information, we must devise analog signals to represent bits. view more..
Ans: In the 1950s and early 1960s, people tried to set up communication systems by bouncing signals off metallized weather balloons. Unfortunately, the received signals were too weak to be of any practical use. Then the U.S. Navy noticed a kind of permanent weather balloon in the sky—the moon—and built an operational system for ship-to-shore communication by bouncing signals off it. view more..
Ans: The traditional telephone system, even if it someday gets multigigabit end-toend fiber, will still not be able to satisfy a growing group of users: people on the go. People now expect to make phone calls and to use their phones to check email and surf the Web from airplanes, cars, swimming pools, and while jogging in the park. Consequently, there is a tremendous amount of interest in wireless telephony. view more..
Ans: We have now studied both the fixed and wireless telephone systems in a fair amount of detail. Both will clearly play a major role in future networks. But there is another major player that has emerged over the past decade for Internet access: cable television networks. Many people nowadays get their telephone and Internet service over cable. view more..
Ans: In this chapter we will study the design principles for the second layer in our model, the data link layer. This study deals with algorithms for achieving reliable, efficient communication of whole units of information called frames (rather than individual bits, as in the physical layer) between two adjacent machines. By adjacent, we mean that the two machines are connected by a communication channel that acts conceptually like a wire (e.g., a coaxial cable, telephone line, or wireless channel). view more..
Ans: We saw in Chap. 2 that communication channels have a range of characteristics. Some channels, like optical fiber in telecommunications networks, have tiny error rates so that transmission errors are a rare occurrence. But other channels, especially wireless links and aging local loops, have error rates that are orders of magnitude larger. view more..
Ans: To introduce the subject of protocols, we will begin by looking at three protocols of increasing complexity. For interested readers, a simulator for these and subsequent protocols is available via the Web (see the preface). Before we look at the protocols, it is useful to make explicit some of the assumptions underlying the model of communication. view more..
Ans: To introduce the subject of protocols, we will begin by looking at three protocols of increasing complexity. For interested readers, a simulator for these and subsequent protocols is available via the Web (see the preface). view more..
Ans: In the previous protocols, data frames were transmitted in one direction only. In most practical situations, there is a need to transmit data in both directions. One way of achieving full-duplex data transmission is to run two instances of one of the previous protocols, each using a separate link for simplex data traffic (in different directions). view more..
Ans: In the previous protocols, data frames were transmitted in one direction only. In most practical situations, there is a need to transmit data in both directions. One way of achieving full-duplex data transmission is to run two instances of one of the previous protocols, each using a separate link for simplex data traffic (in different directions). view more..
Ans: Within a single building, LANs are widely used for interconnection, but most wide-area network infrastructure is built up from point-to-point lines. In Chap. 4, we will look at LANs. Here we will examine the data link protocols found on point-to-point lines in the Internet in two common situations. The first situation is when packets are sent over SONET optical fiber links in wide-area networks. view more..
Ans: Network links can be divided into two categories: those using point-to-point connections and those using broadcast channels. We studied point-to-point links in Chap. 2; this chapter deals with broadcast links and their protocols. view more..
Ans: Network links can be divided into two categories: those using point-to-point connections and those using broadcast channels. We studied point-to-point links in Chap. 2; this chapter deals with broadcast links and their protocols. view more..
Ans: Network links can be divided into two categories: those using point-to-point connections and those using broadcast channels. We studied point-to-point links in Chap. 2; this chapter deals with broadcast links and their protocols. view more..
Ans: Network links can be divided into two categories: those using point-to-point connections and those using broadcast channels. We studied point-to-point links in Chap. 2; this chapter deals with broadcast links and their protocols. view more..
Ans: We have now finished our discussion of channel allocation protocols in the abstract, so it is time to see how these principles apply to real systems. Many of the designs for personal, local, and metropolitan area networks have been standardized under the name of IEEE 802. A few have survived but many have not, as we saw in Fig. 1-38. Some people who believe in reincarnation think that Charles Darwin came back as a member of the IEEE Standards Association to weed out the unfit. view more..
Ans: In any broadcast network, the key issue is how to determine who gets to use the channel when there is competition for it. To make this point, consider a conference call in which six people, on six different telephones, are all connected so that each one can hear and talk to all the others. It is very likely that when one of them stops speaking, two or more will start talking at once, leading to chaos. view more..

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