Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit

Instead of having individual registers performing the microoperations directly, computer systems employ a number of storage registers connected to a common operational unit called an arithmetic logic unit, abbreviated ALU.

To perform a microoperation, the contents of specified registers are placed in the inputs of the common ALU. The ALU performs an operation and the result of the operation is then transferred to a destination register. The ALU is a combinational circuit, so that the entire register transfer operation from the source registers through the ALU and into the destination register can be performed during one clock pulse period. The shift microoperations are often overall in a separate unit, but sometimes the shift unit is made part of the overall ALU.

The arithmetic, logic, and shift circuits can be combined into one ALU with common selection variables. One stage of an arithmetic logic shift unit is shown in Fig. 4-13. The subscript i designates a typical stage. Inputs A1 and B1 are applied to both the arithmetic and logic units.

A particular microoperation is selected with inputs S1 and S0. A 4 x 1 multiplexer at the output chooses between an arithmetic output in Ei and a logic output in Hi. The data in the multiplexer are selected with inputs S3 and S2. The other two data inputs to the multiplexer receive inputs Ai - 1 for the shift-right operation and Ai + 1 for the shift-left operation. Note that the diagram shows just one typical stage. The circuit of Fig. 4-13 must be repeated n times for an n-bit ALU. The output carry Ci + 1 of a given arithmetic stage must be connected to the input carry Ci of the next stage in sequence. The input carry to the first stage is the input carry Cin, which provides a selection variable for the arithmetic operations.

The circuit whose one stage is specified in Fig. 4-13 provides eight arithmetic operation, four logic operations, and two shift operations. Each operation is selected with the five variables S3, S2, S1, S0, and Cin The input carry Cin is used for selecting an arithmetic operation only.

Table 4-B lists the 14 operations of the ALU. The first eight are arithmetic operations and are selected with S3S2 = 00. The next four are logic operations and are selected with S3S2 = 01. The input carry has no effect during the logic operations and is marked with don't-care x's. The last two operations are shift operations and are selected with S3S2 = 10 and 11. The other three selection inputs have no effect on the shift.

Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: Shift rnicrooperations are used for serial transfer of data. They are also used in conjunction with arithmetic, logic, and other data-processing operations. The contents of a register can be shifted to the left or the right. At the same time that the bits are shifted, the first flip-flop receives its binary information from the serial input view more..
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Ans: The selective-set operation sets to 1 the bits in register A where there are corresponding 1's in register B. It does not affect bit positions that have D's in B. The following numerical example clarifies this operation. view more..
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Ans: Logic microoperations are very useful for manipulating individual bits or a portion of a word stored in a register. They can be used to change bit values, delete a group of bits, or insert new bit values into a register. view more..
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Ans: Instead of having individual registers performing the microoperations directly, computer systems employ a number of storage registers connected to a common operational unit called an arithmetic logic unit, abbreviated ALU. view more..
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Ans: In this chapter we introduce a basic computer and show how its operation can be puter specified with register is defined by its internal transfer registers, statements. the limirlg The otganization and control of structure, the comand the set of instructions that It uses. The design of the computer is then carried out in detall. Although the basic computer presented in this chap view more..
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Ans: An instruction code is a group of bits that instruct the computer to perform a specific operation. It is usually divided into parts, each having its own particular interpretation. The most basic part of an instruction code is its operation part. The operation code of an instruction is a group of bits that define such operations as add, view more..
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Ans: The simplest way to organize a computer is to have one processor register and an instruction code format with two parts. The first part specifies the operation to be performed and the second specifies an address. The memory address tells the control where to find an operand in memory. This operand is read from memory and used as the data to be operated on together with the data stored in the processor register view more..
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Ans: In this chapter we introduce a basic computer and show how its operation can be puter specified with register is defined by its internal transfer registers, statements. the limirlg The otganization and control of structure, the comand the set of instructions that It uses. The design of the computer is then carried out in detall. Although the basic computer presented in this chapter is very small compared to commercial computers, It has the advantage of being simple enough so we can demonstrate the design process without too many complications. view more..
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Ans: It is sometimes convenient to use the address bits of an instruction code not as an address but as the actual operand. When the second part of an instruction code specifies an operand, the instruction is said to have an immediate operand. view more..
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Ans: Computer instructions are normally stored in consecutive memory locations and are executed sequentially one at a time. The control reads an instruction from a specific address in memory and executes it. It then continues by reading the next instruction in sequence and executes it, and so on. view more..
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Ans: The memory address register (AR) has 12 bits since this is the width of a memory address. The program counter (PC) also has 12 bits and it holds the address of the next instruction to be read from memory after the current instruction is executed. The PC goes through a counting sequence and causes the computer to read sequential instructions previously stored in memory. Instruction words are read and executed in sequence unless a branch instruction is encountered. view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has eight registers, a memory unit, and a control unit. Paths must be provided to transfer information from one register to another and between memory and registers. view more..
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Ans: The input data and output data of the memory are connected to the common bus, but the memory address is connected to AR. Therefore, AR must always be used to specify a memory address. By using a single register for the address, we eliminate the need for an address bus that would have been needed otherwise. The content of any register can be specified for the memory data input during a write operation. Similarly, any register can receive the data from memory after a read operation except AC . view more..
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Ans: The basic computer has three instruction code formats, as shown in Fig. 5-5. Each format has 16 bits. The operation code (opcode) part of the instruction contains three bits and the meaning of the remaining 13 bits depends on the operation code encountered. view more..
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Ans: Before investigating the operations performed by the instructions, let us discuss the type of instructions that must be included in a computer. A computer should have a set of instructions so that the user can construct machine language programs to evaluate any function that is known to be computable. The set of instructions are said to be complete if the computer includes a sufficient number of instructions in each of the following categories: view more..
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Ans: The timing for all registers in the basic computer is controlled by a master clock generator. The clock pulses are applied to all flip-flops and registers in the system, including the flip-flops and registers in the control unit. The clock pulses do not change the state of a register unless the register is enabled by view more..
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Ans: The last three waveforms in Fig. 5-7 show how SC is cleared when D3T4 = I. Output D3 from the operation decoder becomes active at the end of timing signal T2• When timing signal T4 becomes active, the output of the AND gate that implements the control function D3T4 becomes active. This signal is applied to the CLR input of SC. view more..
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Ans: A program residing in the memory unit of the computer consists of a sequence of instructions. The program is executed in the computer by going through a cycle for each instruction. Each instruction cycle in turn is subdivided into a sequence of subcycles or phases. In the basic computer each instruction cycle consists of the following phases: view more..

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