DATA TYPES




Binary information in digital computers is stored in memory or processor registers. Registers contain either data or control information. Control information Is a bit or a group of bits used to specify the sequence of command signals needed for manipulation of the data in other registers. Data are numbers and other binary-<:oded information that are operated on to achieve required computational results. In this chapter we present the most common types of data found in digital compute.rs and show how the various data types are represented in binary-Coded form in computer registers.

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Number System Instruction Codes
Octal And Hexadecimal Number Conversion Instruction Codes
Arithmetic Addition Computer Instructions
Logic Microoperations Register-reference Instructions
Hardware Implementation Add To Ac

The data types found inthe registers of digital computers may be classified as beirlg one of the foUowing categories: {1) numbers used in arithmetic computations, (2) letters of the alphabet used in data processing. and {3) other discrete symbols used for specific purposes. All types of data, except binary numbers, are represented in computer registers in binary.This is because registers are made up of flip-flops and flip-flops are two-state devires that can store only l's and O's. The binary number system is the most natural system to differe use in a digital computer. But sometimes it is convenient to employ nt number systems, espedally the decimal number system, since it is used by people to perform arithmetic computations.

Topics You May Be Interested In
Number System Memory Transfer
Octal And Hexadecimal Number Conversion Binary Adder
Other Binary Code List Of Logic Microoperations
Other Alphanumeric Codes Timing And Control -2
Register Transfer Language -2 Bsa: Branch And Save Return Address -subroutine Call


Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: Binary information in digital computers is stored in memory or processor registers. Registers contain either data or control information. Control information Is a bit or a group of bits used to specify the sequence of command signals needed for manipulation of the data in other register view more..
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Ans: A number system of base, or radix, r is a system that uses distinct symbols for r digits. Numbers are represented by a string of digit symbols. To determine the quantity that the number represents, it is necessary to multiply each digit by an integer power of r and then form the sum of all weighted digits. view more..
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Ans: Conversion from decimal to its equivalent representation in the radix r system is carried out by separating the number into its integer and fraction parts and converting each part separately. view more..
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Ans: The conversion from and to binary, octal, and hexadecimal representation plays an important part in digital computers. Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16, each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each hexadecimal digit corresponds to four binary digits. view more..
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Ans: Table 3-1 lists a few octal numbers and their representation in registers in binary-coded form. The binary code is obtained by the procedure explained above. Each octal digit is assigned a 3-bit code as specified by the entries of the first eight digits in the table view more..
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Ans: The binary number system is the most natural system for a computer, but people are accustomed to the decimal system. One way to solve this conflict is to convert all input decimal numbers into binary numbers, let the computer perform all arithmetic operations in binary and then convert the binary results back to decimal for the human user to understand. view more..
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Ans: Many applications of digital computers require the handling of data that consist not only of numbers, but also of the letters of the alphabet and certain special characters view more..
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Ans: Complements are used in digital computers for simplifying the subtraction operation and for logical manipulation. There are two types of complements for each base r system: the r's complement and the (r - l)'s complement. view more..
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Ans: The r's complement of an n-digit number N in base r is defined as r' - N for N * D and D for N = D. Comparing with the (r - I)'s complement, we note that the r's complement is obtained by adding I to the (r - I)'s complement since r' - N = [(r' - I) - N] + I. view more..
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Ans: The direct method of subtraction taught in elementary schools uses the borrow concept. In this method we borrow a 1 from a higher significant position when the minuend digit is smaller than the corresponding subtrahend digit. view more..
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Ans: Since we are dealing with unsigned numbers, there is really no way to get an unsigned result for the second example. view more..
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Ans: Positive integers, including zero, can be represented as unsigned numbers. However, to represent negative integers, we need a notation for negative values. In ordinary arithmetic, a negative number is indicated by a minus sign and a positive number by a plus sign. view more..
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Ans: When an integer binary number is positive, the sign is represented by 0 and the magnitude by a positive binary number. When the number is negative, the sign is represented by 1 but the rest of the number may be represented in one of three possible ways: view more..
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Ans: The addition of two numbers in the signed-magnitude system follows the rules of ordinary arithmetic. If the signs are the same, we add the two magnitudes and give the sum the common sign. If the signs are different, we subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger and give the result the sign of the larger magnitude. view more..
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Ans: Subtraction of two signed binary numbers when negative numbers are in 2' s complement form is very simple and can be stated as follows: Take the 2's complement of the subtrahend (including the sign bit) and add it to the minuend (including the sign bit). A carry out of the sign bit position is discarded. view more..




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